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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
 Lee,  Kim,  

Selective responses of three Ginkgo biloba leaf-derived constituents on human intestinal bacteria.

The selective responses of Ginkgo biloba leaf-derived materials against six intestinal bacteria was examined using an impregnated paper disk method and compared with that of bilobalide, ginkgolides A and B, kaempferol, and quercetin. The components of G. biloba leaves were characterized as kaempferol 3-O-alpha-(6' "-p-coumaroylglucosyl-beta-1,4-rhamnoside), kaempferol 3-O-(2' '-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside, and quercetin 3-O-alpha-(6' "-p-coumaroylglucosyl-beta-1,4-rhamnoside) by spectroscopic analysis. The growth responses varied with each bacterial strain tested. At 2 mg/disk, kaempferol 3-O-alpha-(6' "-p-coumaroylglucosyl-beta-1,4-rhamnoside) and quercetin 3-O-alpha-(6' "-p-coumaroylglucosyl-beta-1,4-rhamnoside) revealed potent inhibition against Clostridium perfringens, and kaempferol 3-O-(2' '-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside showed a clear inhibitory effect on Escherichia coli. At 0.5 mg/disk, quercetin 3-O-alpha-(6' "-p-coumaroylglucosyl-beta-1,4-rhamnoside) showed a strong activity against C. perfringens, but weak activity was exhibited by kaempferol 3-O-alpha-(6' "-p-coumaroylglucosyl-beta-1,4-rhamnoside) against C. perfringens and kaempferol 3-O-(2' '-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside against E. coli. No inhibition was observed from treatments conducted with bilobalide, ginkgolides A and B, kaempferol, or quercetin. Furthermore, these isolated compounds did not inhibit Bifidobacterium bifidum, B. longum, B. adolescentis, or Lactobacillus acidophilus.[1]


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