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MeSH Review

Ginkgo biloba

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Disease relevance of Ginkgo biloba

  • The Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) protects and rescues hippocampal cells against nitric oxide-induced toxicity: involvement of its flavonoid constituents and protein kinase C [1].
  • Neuroprotective effect of Ginkgo biloba extract EGb761 in cisplatin (cis-diamminedi-chloroplatinum, or CDDP)-induced peripheral neuropathy was investigated [2].
  • The effect of an extract of Ginkgo biloba was studied on cerebral edema in rats intoxicated with triethyltin chloride (TET) [3].
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of bilobalide, the postulated active constituent of Ginkgo biloba, on the release of glutamate elicited by hypoxia/hypoglycemia [4].
  • HES 70, betahistine and ginkgo biloba compensated cochlear ischemia only during infusion; however, 30-60 min after termination of therapy, no significant difference of values for CoBF was observed compared to the untreated noise-exposed groups [5].

Psychiatry related information on Ginkgo biloba


High impact information on Ginkgo biloba


Chemical compound and disease context of Ginkgo biloba

  • For clarification of the beneficial effects of the extract of Ginkgo biloba (EGB) on triethyltin (TET) toxicity in rats, the phosphodiesterase (PDE) activities of the cerebral tissue were measured under in vitro and ex vivo conditions [16].
  • The practical pharmacological approaches currently available to palliate the cognitive and functional losses in early Alzheimer's disease (AD) include cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEI), antioxidants (e.g., vitamin E), anti-inflammatory agents, estrogen, seligiline, vasoactive agents, and ginkgo biloba [17].
  • Hemorrhage and tendencies were noted in four cases with ginkgo use and in three cases with garlic; in none of these cases were patients receiving warfarin [18].
  • Bilobalide, a component of the Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761), protects against neuronal death in global brain ischemia and in glutamate-induced excitotoxicity [19].
  • The therapeutic efficacy of Ginkgo extracts in Alzheimer's disease in placebo controlled clinical trials is reportedly similar to currently prescribed drugs such as tacrine or donepezil and, importantly, undesirable side effects of Gingko are minimal [20].

Biological context of Ginkgo biloba

  • Ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba) interactions include bleeding when combined with warfarin, raised blood pressure when combined with a thiazide diuretic and coma when combined with trazodone [21].
  • AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of two common herbal medicines, ginkgo and ginger, on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of warfarin and the independent effect of these herbs on clotting status [22].
  • Preventive effect of Ginkgo biloba extract on apoptosis in rat cerebellar neuronal cells induced by hydroxyl radicals [23].
  • Effect of Ginkgo biloba extract was examined on dissociated rat cerebellar neurons suffering from oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide using a flow cytometer and ethidium bromide [24].
  • Previous studies suggest the protective potentiality of Ginkgo biloba (EGb 761) against apoptotic cell death induced by hydroxyl radicals, staurosporine, serum deprivation and beta-amyloid (betaA) peptide [25].

Anatomical context of Ginkgo biloba


Associations of Ginkgo biloba with chemical compounds


Gene context of Ginkgo biloba


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Ginkgo biloba


  1. The Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) protects and rescues hippocampal cells against nitric oxide-induced toxicity: involvement of its flavonoid constituents and protein kinase C. Bastianetto, S., Zheng, W.H., Quirion, R. J. Neurochem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  2. The effect of Ginkgo extract EGb761 in cisplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy in mice. Oztürk, G., Anlar, O., Erdoğan, E., Kösem, M., Ozbek, H., Türker, A. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. Effect of an extract of Ginkgo biloba on triethyltin-induced cerebral edema. Otani, M., Chatterjee, S.S., Gabard, B., Kreutzberg, G.W. Acta Neuropathol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  4. Effects of bilobalide on hypoxia/hypoglycemia-stimulated glutamate efflux from rat cortical brain slices. Johns, L., Sinclair, A.J., Davies, J.A. Neurochem. Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. The effect of blood flow promoting drugs on cochlear blood flow, perilymphatic pO(2) and auditory function in the normal and noise-damaged hypoxic and ischemic guinea pig inner ear. Lamm, K., Arnold, W. Hear. Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  6. Coma in a patient with Alzheimer's disease taking low dose trazodone and gingko biloba. Galluzzi, S., Zanetti, O., Binetti, G., Trabucchi, M., Frisoni, G.B. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatr. (2000) [Pubmed]
  7. Ginkgo biloba extract EGb761 reduces the development of amphetamine-induced behavioral sensitization: effects on hippocampal type II corticosteroid receptors. Trovero, F., Brochet, D., Tassin, J.P., Drieu, K. Brain Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  8. The effects of melatonin and Ginkgo biloba extract on memory loss and choline acetyltransferase activities in the brain of rats infused intracerebroventricularly with beta-amyloid 1-40. Tang, F., Nag, S., Shiu, S.Y., Pang, S.F. Life Sci. (2002) [Pubmed]
  9. Facilitative effects of EGb 761 on olfactory recognition in young and aged rats. Wirth, S., Stemmelin, J., Will, B., Christen YVES, n.u.l.l., Di Scala, G. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. (2000) [Pubmed]
  10. Perspectives in the treatment of vascular dementia. Romàn, G. Drugs of today (Barcelona, Spain : 1998) (2000) [Pubmed]
  11. Short-term administration of omega 3 fatty acids from fish oil results in increased transthyretin transcription in old rat hippocampus. Puskás, L.G., Kitajka, K., Nyakas, C., Barcelo-Coblijn, G., Farkas, T. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2003) [Pubmed]
  12. Inhibition of amyloid-beta aggregation and caspase-3 activation by the Ginkgo biloba extract EGb761. Luo, Y., Smith, J.V., Paramasivam, V., Burdick, A., Curry, K.J., Buford, J.P., Khan, I., Netzer, W.J., Xu, H., Butko, P. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. Bioenergetic approaches for neuroprotection in Parkinson's disease. Beal, M.F. Ann. Neurol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  14. Potential for creatine and other therapies targeting cellular energy dysfunction in neurological disorders. Tarnopolsky, M.A., Beal, M.F. Ann. Neurol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  15. Food components and immune function. Plat, J., Mensink, R.P. Curr. Opin. Lipidol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  16. Effects of an extract of Ginkgo biloba on the 3',5'-cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase activity of the brain of normal and triethyltin-intoxicated rats. Macovschi, O., Prigent, A.F., Nemoz, G., Pacheco, H. J. Neurochem. (1987) [Pubmed]
  17. Combination therapy for early Alzheimer's disease: what are we waiting for? Doraiswamy, P.M., Steffens, D.C. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. (1998) [Pubmed]
  18. Interactions of warfarin with garlic, ginger, ginkgo, or ginseng: nature of the evidence. Vaes, L.P., Chyka, P.A. The Annals of pharmacotherapy. (2000) [Pubmed]
  19. Bilobalide, a component of the Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761), protects against neuronal death in global brain ischemia and in glutamate-induced excitotoxicity. Chandrasekaran, K., Mehrabian, Z., Spinnewyn, B., Chinopoulos, C., Drieu, K., Fiskum, G. Cell. Mol. Biol. (Noisy-le-grand) (2002) [Pubmed]
  20. Medicinal plants and Alzheimer's disease: from ethnobotany to phytotherapy. Perry, E.K., Pickering, A.T., Wang, W.W., Houghton, P.J., Perry, N.S. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  21. Interactions between herbal medicines and prescribed drugs: a systematic review. Izzo, A.A., Ernst, E. Drugs (2001) [Pubmed]
  22. Effect of ginkgo and ginger on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of warfarin in healthy subjects. Jiang, X., Williams, K.M., Liauw, W.S., Ammit, A.J., Roufogalis, B.D., Duke, C.C., Day, R.O., McLachlan, A.J. British journal of clinical pharmacology. (2005) [Pubmed]
  23. Preventive effect of Ginkgo biloba extract on apoptosis in rat cerebellar neuronal cells induced by hydroxyl radicals. Ni, Y., Zhao, B., Hou, J., Xin, W. Neurosci. Lett. (1996) [Pubmed]
  24. Ginkgo biloba extract protects brain neurons against oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide. Oyama, Y., Chikahisa, L., Ueha, T., Kanemaru, K., Noda, K. Brain Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
  25. Effect of Ginkgo biloba (EGb 761) on staurosporine-induced neuronal death and caspase activity in cortical cultured neurons. Massieu, L., Morán, J., Christen, Y. Brain Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  26. Protection of hypoxia-induced ATP decrease in endothelial cells by ginkgo biloba extract and bilobalide. Janssens, D., Michiels, C., Delaive, E., Eliaers, F., Drieu, K., Remacle, J. Biochem. Pharmacol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  27. The effects of Ginkgo biloba extracts on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of donepezil. Yasui-Furukori, N., Furukori, H., Kaneda, A., Kaneko, S., Tateishi, T. Journal of clinical pharmacology. (2004) [Pubmed]
  28. mRNA expression profile of a human cancer cell line in response to Ginkgo biloba extract: induction of antioxidant response and the Golgi system. Gohil, K., Moy, R.K., Farzin, S., Maguire, J.J., Packer, L. Free Radic. Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  29. Ginkgolide B, a constituent of Ginkgo biloba, facilitates glutamate exocytosis from rat hippocampal nerve terminals. Wang, S.J., Chen, H.H. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  30. The effect of 3-month ingestion of Ginkgo biloba extract on pancreatic beta-cell function in response to glucose loading in normal glucose tolerant individuals. Kudolo, G.B. Journal of clinical pharmacology. (2000) [Pubmed]
  31. Terpene trilactones from Ginkgo biloba are antagonists of cortical glycine and GABA(A) receptors. Ivic, L., Sands, T.T., Fishkin, N., Nakanishi, K., Kriegstein, A.R., Strømgaard, K. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  32. Oxidative injury in diseases of the central nervous system: focus on Alzheimer's disease. Praticò, D., Delanty, N. Am. J. Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  33. Ginkgo biloba and acetazolamide prophylaxis for acute mountain sickness: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Chow, T., Browne, V., Heileson, H.L., Wallace, D., Anholm, J., Green, S.M. Arch. Intern. Med. (2005) [Pubmed]
  34. Bioavailability and bioefficacy of polyphenols in humans. II. Review of 93 intervention studies. Williamson, G., Manach, C. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (2005) [Pubmed]
  35. Reduction of inclusion body pathology in ApoE-deficient mice fed a combination of antioxidants. Veurink, G., Liu, D., Taddei, K., Perry, G., Smith, M.A., Robertson, T.A., Hone, E., Groth, D.M., Atwood, C.S., Martins, R.N. Free Radic. Biol. Med. (2003) [Pubmed]
  36. Multiple-dose administration of Ginkgo biloba did not affect cytochrome P-450 2D6 or 3A4 activity in normal volunteers. Markowitz, J.S., Donovan, J.L., Lindsay DeVane, C., Sipkes, L., Chavin, K.D. Journal of clinical psychopharmacology. (2003) [Pubmed]
  37. Effects of Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) and quercetin on lipopolysaccharide-induced signaling pathways involved in the release of tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Wadsworth, T.L., McDonald, T.L., Koop, D.R. Biochem. Pharmacol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  38. Effect of Ginkgo biloba extract on procarcinogen-bioactivating human CYP1 enzymes: Identification of isorhamnetin, kaempferol, and quercetin as potent inhibitors of CYP1B1. Chang, T.K., Chen, J., Yeung, E.Y. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  39. Effects of Ginkgo biloba extract on cell proliferation and cytotoxicity in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Chao, J.C., Chu, C.C. World J. Gastroenterol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  40. Inhibition of human P450 enzymes by multiple constituents of the Ginkgo biloba extract. Gaudineau, C., Beckerman, R., Welbourn, S., Auclair, K. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2004) [Pubmed]
  41. UV-C irradiation-induced peroxidative degradation of microsomal fatty acids and proteins: protection by an extract of Ginkgo biloba (EGb 761). Dumont, E., Petit, E., Tarrade, T., Nouvelot, A. Free Radic. Biol. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  42. Cognitive and physiological effects of an "energy drink": an evaluation of the whole drink and of glucose, caffeine and herbal flavouring fractions. Scholey, A.B., Kennedy, D.O. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (2004) [Pubmed]
  43. Molecular cloning and expression profile analysis of Ginkgo biloba DXS gene encoding 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase, the first committed enzyme of the 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate pathway. Gong, Y.F., Liao, Z.H., Guo, B.H., Sun, X.F., Tang, K.X. Planta Med. (2006) [Pubmed]
  44. The effect of 3-month ingestion of Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) on pancreatic beta-cell function in response to glucose loading in individuals with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Kudolo, G.B. Journal of clinical pharmacology. (2001) [Pubmed]
  45. Identification of flavonoid metabolites after oral administration to rats of a Ginkgo biloba extract. Pietta, P.G., Gardana, C., Mauri, P.L., Maffei-Facino, R., Carini, M. J. Chromatogr. B, Biomed. Appl. (1995) [Pubmed]
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