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Chemical Compound Review

Kelfizine     4-amino-N-(3-methoxypyrazin- 2...

Synonyms: Kelfizin, SULFALENE, Longum, Sulphalene, Sulfametopyrazine, ...
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Disease relevance of Longum


Psychiatry related information on Longum


High impact information on Longum


Chemical compound and disease context of Longum


Biological context of Longum


Anatomical context of Longum

  • The humoral immune response was enhanced by oral administration of enzymatically digested cell walls isolated from Bifidobacterium longum [21].
  • Bifidobacteria were detected in the feces only when pigs were fed Bifidobacterium longum [22].
  • Survival of Bifidobacterium longum immobilized in calcium alginate beads in simulated gastric juices and bile salt solution [23].
  • Electromyograms were recorded by surface electrodes from the mm. biceps brachii (caput longum et breve), brachioradialis and triceps brachii (caput longum) in 10 healthy human subjects during slow linear movements in the elbow joint against a weak extending torque [24].
  • Whether this effect on the immune system is achieved through the bifidogenic effect of the formula (mainly through B. longum/B. infantis and B. breve stimulation) or directly linked to compounds (i.e. peptides) produced by milk fermentation remains to be investigated [25].

Associations of Longum with other chemical compounds

  • Male F344 rats were fed a modified AIN-76A diet containing 0 or 2% lyophilized cultures of B. longum and s.c. administered azoxymethane (AOM) dissolved in normal saline at a dose of 15 mg/kg body wt, once weekly for 2 weeks [15].
  • Piperine, a main component of Piper longum Linn. and Piper nigrum Linn., is a plant alkaloid with a long history of medicinal use in Indian medicine [26].
  • The pH optimum of B. longum BSH is between 5 and 7, and the temperature optimum is 40 degrees C. The enzyme is strongly inhibited by thiol enzyme inhibitors, indicating that a Cys residue is likely to be involved in the catalytic reaction [27].
  • Simultaneous quantitative analysis of the antimalarials pyrimethamine and sulfamethoxypyrazine in plasma samples using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry [28].
  • Probiotic yoghurt was the control yoghurt enriched with L. acidophilus 145, B. longum 913 and 1% oligofructose (synbiotic) [29].

Gene context of Longum


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Longum


  1. Yoghurt with Bifidobacterium longum reduces erythromycin-induced gastrointestinal effects. Colombel, J.F., Cortot, A., Neut, C., Romond, C. Lancet (1987) [Pubmed]
  2. Lactobacillus paracasei normalizes muscle hypercontractility in a murine model of postinfective gut dysfunction. Verdú, E.F., Bercík, P., Bergonzelli, G.E., Huang, X.X., Blennerhasset, P., Rochat, F., Fiaux, M., Mansourian, R., Corthésy-Theulaz, I., Collins, S.M. Gastroenterology (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. Occurrence of the new tetracycline resistance gene tet(W) in bacteria from the human gut. Scott, K.P., Melville, C.M., Barbosa, T.M., Flint, H.J. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2000) [Pubmed]
  4. Novel putative galactose operon involving lacto-N-biose phosphorylase in Bifidobacterium longum. Kitaoka, M., Tian, J., Nishimoto, M. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. In vitro kinetic analysis of oligofructose consumption by Bacteroides and Bifidobacterium spp. indicates different degradation mechanisms. Van der Meulen, R., Makras, L., Verbrugghe, K., Adriany, T., De Vuyst, L. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. Lactose-over-glucose preference in Bifidobacterium longum NCC2705: glcP, encoding a glucose transporter, is subject to lactose repression. Parche, S., Beleut, M., Rezzonico, E., Jacobs, D., Arigoni, F., Titgemeyer, F., Jankovic, I. J. Bacteriol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. Analgesic activity of Piper longum Linn. root. Vedhanayaki, G., Shastri, G.V., Kuruvilla, A. Indian J. Exp. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. The genome sequence of Bifidobacterium longum reflects its adaptation to the human gastrointestinal tract. Schell, M.A., Karmirantzou, M., Snel, B., Vilanova, D., Berger, B., Pessi, G., Zwahlen, M.C., Desiere, F., Bork, P., Delley, M., Pridmore, R.D., Arigoni, F. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2002) [Pubmed]
  9. T and R states in the crystals of bacterial L-lactate dehydrogenase reveal the mechanism for allosteric control. Iwata, S., Kamata, K., Yoshida, S., Minowa, T., Ohta, T. Nat. Struct. Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  10. A serpin from the gut bacterium Bifidobacterium longum inhibits eukaryotic elastase-like serine proteases. Ivanov, D., Emonet, C., Foata, F., Affolter, M., Delley, M., Fisseha, M., Blum-Sperisen, S., Kochhar, S., Arigoni, F. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. Structural and Functional Analysis of a Conjugated Bile Salt Hydrolase from Bifidobacterium longum Reveals an Evolutionary Relationship with Penicillin V Acylase. Kumar, R.S., Brannigan, J.A., Prabhune, A.A., Pundle, A.V., Dodson, G.G., Dodson, E.J., Suresh, C.G. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  12. Allosteric activation of L-lactate dehydrogenase analyzed by hybrid enzymes with effector-sensitive and -insensitive subunits. Fushinobu, S., Kamata, K., Iwata, S., Sakai, H., Ohta, T., Matsuzawa, H. J. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  13. Homotropic activation via the subunit interaction and allosteric symmetry revealed on analysis of hybrid enzymes of L-lactate dehydrogenase. Fushinobu, S., Ohta, T., Matsuzawa, H. J. Biol. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  14. Synbiotic therapy (Bifidobacterium longum/Synergy 1) initiates resolution of inflammation in patients with active ulcerative colitis: a randomised controlled pilot trial. Furrie, E., Macfarlane, S., Kennedy, A., Cummings, J.H., Walsh, S.V., O'neil, D.A., Macfarlane, G.T. Gut (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. Bifidobacterium longum, a lactic acid-producing intestinal bacterium inhibits colon cancer and modulates the intermediate biomarkers of colon carcinogenesis. Singh, J., Rivenson, A., Tomita, M., Shimamura, S., Ishibashi, N., Reddy, B.S. Carcinogenesis (1997) [Pubmed]
  16. Effect of Bifidobacterium longum and inulin on gut bacterial metabolism and carcinogen-induced aberrant crypt foci in rats. Rowland, I.R., Rumney, C.J., Coutts, J.T., Lievense, L.C. Carcinogenesis (1998) [Pubmed]
  17. Probiotics and safety. Ishibashi, N., Yamazaki, S. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (2001) [Pubmed]
  18. Does yogurt enriched with Bifidobacterium longum affect colonic microbiology and fecal metabolites in health subjects? Bartram, H.P., Scheppach, W., Gerlach, S., Ruckdeschel, G., Kelber, E., Kasper, H. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (1994) [Pubmed]
  19. Novel aromatic ester from Piper longum and its analogues inhibit expression of cell adhesion molecules on endothelial cells. Kumar, S., Arya, P., Mukherjee, C., Singh, B.K., Singh, N., Parmar, V.S., Prasad, A.K., Ghosh, B. Biochemistry (2005) [Pubmed]
  20. Comparative analysis of sequences flanking tet(W) resistance genes in multiple species of gut bacteria. Kazimierczak, K.A., Flint, H.J., Scott, K.P. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2006) [Pubmed]
  21. Effect of oral administration of lysozyme or digested bacterial cell walls on immunostimulation in guinea pigs. Namba, Y., Hidaka, Y., Taki, K., Morimoto, T. Infect. Immun. (1981) [Pubmed]
  22. Fecal numbers of bifidobacteria are higher in pigs fed Bifidobacterium longum with a high amylose cornstarch than with a low amylose cornstarch. Brown, I., Warhurst, M., Arcot, J., Playne, M., Illman, R.J., Topping, D.L. J. Nutr. (1997) [Pubmed]
  23. Survival of Bifidobacterium longum immobilized in calcium alginate beads in simulated gastric juices and bile salt solution. Lee, K.Y., Heo, T.R. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  24. Analysis of the electromyographic activity of human elbow joint muscles during slow linear flexion movements in isotorque conditions. Tal'nov, A.N., Serenko, S.G., Strafun, S.S., Kostyukov, A.I. Neuroscience (1999) [Pubmed]
  25. Increased poliovirus-specific intestinal antibody response coincides with promotion of Bifidobacterium longum-infantis and Bifidobacterium breve in infants: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Mullié, C., Yazourh, A., Thibault, H., Odou, M.F., Singer, E., Kalach, N., Kremp, O., Romond, M.B. Pediatr. Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  26. Modulation of cadmium induced alterations in murine thymocytes by piperine: oxidative stress, apoptosis, phenotyping and blastogenesis. Pathak, N., Khandelwal, S. Biochem. Pharmacol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  27. Bile salt hydrolase of Bifidobacterium longum-biochemical and genetic characterization. Tanaka, H., Hashiba, H., Kok, J., Mierau, I. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  28. Simultaneous quantitative analysis of the antimalarials pyrimethamine and sulfamethoxypyrazine in plasma samples using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Storme, M.L., Jansen, F.H., Goeteyn, W., Van Bocxlaer, J.F. Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. (2006) [Pubmed]
  29. Long-term consumption of fermented dairy products over 6 months increases HDL cholesterol. Kiessling, G., Schneider, J., Jahreis, G. European journal of clinical nutrition. (2002) [Pubmed]
  30. Piper longum inhibits VEGF and proinflammatory cytokines and tumor-induced angiogenesis in C57BL/6 mice. Sunila, E.S., Kuttan, G. Int. Immunopharmacol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  31. Inhibitory activity of Bifidobacterium longum HY8001 against Vero cytotoxin of Escherichia coli O157:H7. Kim, S.H., Yang, S.J., Koo, H.C., Bae, W.K., Kim, J.Y., Park, J.H., Baek, Y.J., Park, Y.H. J. Food Prot. (2001) [Pubmed]
  32. Bifidobacterial species differentially affect expression of cell surface markers and cytokines of dendritic cells harvested from cord blood. Young, S.L., Simon, M.A., Baird, M.A., Tannock, G.W., Bibiloni, R., Spencely, K., Lane, J.M., Fitzharris, P., Crane, J., Town, I., Addo-Yobo, E., Murray, C.S., Woodcock, A. Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  33. Identification and molecular cloning of a novel glycoside hydrolase family of core 1 type O-glycan-specific endo-alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase from Bifidobacterium longum. Fujita, K., Oura, F., Nagamine, N., Katayama, T., Hiratake, J., Sakata, K., Kumagai, H., Yamamoto, K. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  34. PCR detection and quantitation of predominant anaerobic bacteria in human and animal fecal samples. Wang, R.F., Cao, W.W., Cerniglia, C.E. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  35. Cross-Feeding between Bifidobacterium longum BB536 and Acetate-Converting, Butyrate-Producing Colon Bacteria during Growth on Oligofructose. Falony, G., Vlachou, A., Verbrugghe, K., Vuyst, L.D. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
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