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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Growth-rate periodicity of Streptomyces levoris during space flight.

Streptomyces levoris Kras was used is an experimental test micro-organism during the Apollo Soyuz Test Project to study alternating vegetative mycelial and spore ring periodicity during space flight. Four cultures were launched in each of the spacecrafts (Apollo and Soyuz). During the joint space-flight activities, two cultures from each spacecraft were exchanged. Selected duplicate cultures were maintained as controls in both the USA and the USSR. Spore ring morphology was periodically documented by photographing the specimens at approximately 12-hr intervals during the pre-, in-, and post-flight periods of the experiment. A decreased growth-rate periodicity in all but one of the eight space-flight cultures was in part attributed to the reduced temperature in the spacecraft. One of the eight cultures grew at a faster rate in the reduced temperature environment of Apollo than did the ground controls. Three of the space-flight cultures developed double spore rings during the immediate post-flight period. This anomaly was attributed to re-entry into the earth's gravity. The absence of spores in portions of one ring formed during space flight may have been caused by nutritional defects or media abnormality. Extensive studies will be required to elucidate the cause of this detect with certainty. There was no visible evidence of wedges in the cultures which would suggest naturally occurring or radiation-induced mutagenic alteration during space flight.[1]


  1. Growth-rate periodicity of Streptomyces levoris during space flight. Rogers, T.D., Brower, M.E., Taylor, G.R. Life sciences and space research. (1977) [Pubmed]
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