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Chemical Compound Review

Acaristop     3,6-bis(2-chlorophenyl)- 1,2,4,5-tetrazine

Synonyms: Panatac, Apollo, apolo, Clofentezine, Bisclofentazin, ...
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Disease relevance of Bisclofentazin

  • Apollo 11 disease or acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis: a pandemic of a new enterovirus infection of the eyes [1].
  • Studies during the Gemini, Apollo, Skylab and Shuttle missions demonstrated alterations in renal function, fluid homeostasis and bone resorption that result in increased urinary supersaturation of calcium oxalate, brushite, sodium urate and uric acid [2].
  • The intervention was hyperopic LASIK using the Automated Corneal Shaper microkeratome (Bausch & Lomb) and the Apollo broad-beam excimer laser using a 5.5 mm optical zone and an 8.0 mm transition zone; astigmatism was treated by steepening the flattest meridian [3].
  • The immunodiffusion technique was successfully used to unambiguously recognize four strains of Rhizobium meliloti in a study of competition for nodulation with Medicago sativa cv. Apollo inoculated with two-, three- and four-strain mixtures [4].
  • Onboard of several spacecrafts (Apollo 16, Spacelab 1, LDEF), spores of Bacillus subtilis were exposed to selected parameters of space, such as space vacuum, different spectral ranges of solar UV-radiation and cosmic rays, applied separately or in combination, and we have studied their survival and genetic changes after retrieval [5].

Psychiatry related information on Bisclofentazin

  • I present data on home-range use and types of intergroup encounters for one group (Apollo) of western gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) from a new study site in the Republic of Congo [6].
  • A study of the Apollo 13 mission, based on the themes showcased in the acclaimed 1995 film, reveals the grace under pressure that is the condition of optimal creativity. "Apollo 13 Creativity" is a cultural and creative problem-solving appreciation of the thinking style that made the Apollo mission succeed: creativity under severe limitations [7].
  • Greek homosexuality, Greek narcissism, Greek culture: the invention of Apollo [8].

High impact information on Bisclofentazin


Biological context of Bisclofentazin

  • Although its low abundance at telomeres indicates that Apollo is not a core component of shelterin, Apollo knockdown with RNAi resulted in senescence and the activation of a DNA-damage signal at telomeres as evidenced by telomere-dysfunction-induced foci (TIFs) [9].
  • Using these methods, the variation in occupancy and abundance of the clouded apollo butterfly (Parnassius mnemosyne L.) was decomposed into independent and joint effects of larval and adult food resources, microclimate and habitat quantity [12].
  • Using garden pea (Pisum sativum L. cv. Weibul's Apollo) and an agravitropic mutant (cv. Ageotropum), root oxytropism was studied in the controlled environment of a microrhizotron [13].
  • Molecular systematics and evolution of the "Apollo" butterflies of the genus Parnassius (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) based on mitochondrial DNA sequence data [14].
  • High similarity between flanking regions of different microsatellites detected within each of two species of Lepidoptera: Parnassius apollo and Euphydryas aurinia [15].

Anatomical context of Bisclofentazin

  • The typical microbial inhabitants of the oral and nasal cavities of Apollo astronauts were identified before space flight and generally found to be similar to those previously reported for healthy male adults [16].
  • It has been reported that spaceflight conditions alter the immune system and resistance to infection [Belay T, Aviles H, Vance M, Fountain K, and Sonnenfeld G. J Allergy Clin Immunol 170: 262-268, 2002; Hankins WR and Ziegelschmid JF. In: Biomedical Results of Apollo. Washington, DC: NASA, 1975, p. 43-81. (NASA Spec. Rep. SP-368)] [17].
  • The bond strength to dentine and the depth of polymerisation with Apollo 95E used for 1 x 3 s were equal to or less than that obtained with the conventional lamp, depending on the resin composite [18].
  • Bone density measurements were obtained at the calcaneus using the portable Norland Apollo Densitometer (Norland Medical Systems, Fort Atkinson, WI) and at the hip and spine using the Norland Eclipse densitometer [19].
  • The rationale for studying certain hypothalamic nuclei and the pituitary and adrenal glands of the pocket mice that flew on Apollo XVII was the need to evaluate the effects of the potentially severe stress on these animals in the foreign environment of flight canister, weightlessness, increased G forces, and other unnatural conditions [20].

Associations of Bisclofentazin with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Bisclofentazin

  • Most astronauts on Apollo, Skylab, and MIR reported 'flashes of light' occurring in different shapes and apparently moving across the visual field, in the absence of auditory, somatosensory, or olfactory abnormal percepts [26].
  • Effects of zinc and influence of Acremonium lolii on growth parameters, chlorophyll a fluorescence and antioxidant enzyme activities of ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. cv Apollo) [27].
  • Plasma arc curing worked well for Z250 and Herculite XRV, compared to medium or low intensity halogen irradiation for Silux Plus and Definite and produced moderately (PAC Light) or very (Apollo 95E) high solubility for Solitaire 2 [28].
  • The irradiation protocols included halogen standard irradiation at three different intensities (TriLight, ESPE), ramp curing (dito), step curing (HiLight, ESPE), pulse polymerization (VIP Light, BISCO) and plasma curing (Apollo 95E, DMDS; PAC Light, ADT) [28].
  • In the Apollo and Skylab Programs, manual control of the cooling water was a necessary operation to ensure proper control of body heat storage for the EVA crewman [29].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Bisclofentazin

  • Our hybrid imaging system (GE Apollo flat panel, custom Brand x-ray static anode x-ray tube, GE Lunar high-frequency power supply and 0.5 T Signa SP) provides both x-ray and MR imaging capability to guide complex procedures without requiring motion of the patient between two distant gantries [30].
  • A leaf disc bioassay was employed in the laboratory to assess the population responses of Tetranychus viennensis Zacher to clofentezine at three concentrations (LC(10), LC(25) and LC(50)) in three successive generations [31].
  • Forty-eight matched pairs of osteoarthritic knees from patients who underwent primary total knee arthroplasty with a round-on-round, Apollo Knee System were studied to evaluate the outcome between all-polyethylene and metal-backed tibial components [32].
  • Fifteen saponins were identified in alfalfa (cultivars Apollo, Radius, and Kleszczewska) based upon negative-ion HPLC/PDA/ESI/MS, HPLC/PDA/ESI/MS/MS and literature data [33].
  • We report the short-term outcome of 48 total knee replacements in 31 patients utilizing the Apollo Total Knee System after an average follow-up of 48 months (range 15 to 70 months) [34].


  1. Apollo 11 disease or acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis: a pandemic of a new enterovirus infection of the eyes. Kono, R. Am. J. Epidemiol. (1975) [Pubmed]
  2. Renal stone risk in a simulated microgravity environment: impact of treadmill exercise with lower body negative pressure. Monga, M., Macias, B., Groppo, E., Kostelec, M., Hargens, A. J. Urol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. Hyperopic laser in situ keratomileusis for refractive accommodative esotropia. Hoyos, J.E., Cigales, M., Hoyos-Chacón, J., Ferrer, J., Maldonado-Bas, A. Journal of cataract and refractive surgery. (2002) [Pubmed]
  4. Application of immunodiffusion to the identification of Rhizobium meliloti strains competing for nodulation on Medicago sativa. Sinha, R.C., Bromfield, E.S., Peterson, E.A. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek (1984) [Pubmed]
  5. Responses of Bacillus subtilis spores to space environment: results from experiments in space. Horneck, G. Origins of life and evolution of the biosphere : the journal of the International Society for the Study of the Origin of Life. (1993) [Pubmed]
  6. Home-range use and intergroup encounters in western gorillas (Gorilla g. gorilla) at Lossi forest, North Congo. Bermejo, M. Am. J. Primatol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Apollo 13 creativity: in-the-box innovation. King, M.J. The Journal of creative behavior. (1997) [Pubmed]
  8. Greek homosexuality, Greek narcissism, Greek culture: the invention of Apollo. Gonzalez-Reigosa, F., Kaminsky, H. The Psychohistory review. (1989) [Pubmed]
  9. Apollo, an Artemis-related nuclease, interacts with TRF2 and protects human telomeres in S phase. van Overbeek, M., de Lange, T. Curr. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. The Apollo 5' exonuclease functions together with TRF2 to protect telomeres from DNA repair. Lenain, C., Bauwens, S., Amiard, S., Brunori, M., Giraud-Panis, M.J., Gilson, E. Curr. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. Telomere protection: an act of God. Szilard, R.K., Durocher, D. Curr. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  12. New insights into butterfly-environment relationships using partitioning methods. Heikkinen, R.K., Luoto, M., Kuussaari, M., Pöyry, J. Proc. Biol. Sci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  13. The tropic response of plant roots to oxygen: oxytropism in Pisum sativum L. Porterfield, D.M., Musgrave, M.E. Planta (1998) [Pubmed]
  14. Molecular systematics and evolution of the "Apollo" butterflies of the genus Parnassius (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) based on mitochondrial DNA sequence data. Omoto, K., Katoh, T., Chichvarkhin, A., Yagi, T. Gene (2004) [Pubmed]
  15. High similarity between flanking regions of different microsatellites detected within each of two species of Lepidoptera: Parnassius apollo and Euphydryas aurinia. Meglecz, E., Petenian, F., Danchin, E., D'Acier, A.C., Rasplus, J.Y., Faure, E. Mol. Ecol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  16. Autoflora in the upper respiratory tract of Apollo astronauts. Decelle, J.G., Taylor, G.R. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (1976) [Pubmed]
  17. Increased susceptibility to Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection under hindlimb-unloading conditions. Aviles, H., Belay, T., Fountain, K., Vance, M., Sonnenfeld, G. J. Appl. Physiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  18. Polymerisation characteristics of resin composites polymerised with different curing units. Danesh, G., Davids, H., Reinhardt, K.J., Ott, K., Schäfer, E. Journal of dentistry. (2004) [Pubmed]
  19. Bone mineral density assessment: comparison of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry measurements at the calcaneus, spine, and hip. Sweeney, A.T., Malabanan, A.O., Blake, M.A., Weinberg, J., Turner, A., Ray, P., Holick, M.F. Journal of clinical densitometry : the official journal of the International Society for Clinical Densitometry. (2002) [Pubmed]
  20. The effects of cosmic particle radiation on pocket mice aboard Apollo XVII: appendix I. Condition of flight animals on recovery; food intake; observations on hypothalamus, pituitary, and adrenal glands. Ordy, J.M., Brizzee, K.R., Samorajski, T. Aviation, space, and environmental medicine. (1975) [Pubmed]
  21. Toxicity of pesticides to predatory mites and insects in apple-tree site under field conditions. Raudonis, L., Surviliene, E., Valiuskaite, A. Environ. Toxicol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  22. Determination of fluquinconazole, pyrimethanil, and clofentezine residues in fruits by liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. Navickiene, S., Ribeiro, M.L. Journal of AOAC International. (2004) [Pubmed]
  23. Biomedical results of the Skylab Program. Michel, E.L., Johnston, R.S., Dietlein, L.F. Life sciences and space research. (1976) [Pubmed]
  24. Psychological issues relevant to astronaut selection for long-duration space flight: a review of the literature. Collins, D.L. Human performance in extreme environments : the journal of the Society for Human Performance in Extreme Environments. (2003) [Pubmed]
  25. Prolonged weightlessness effect on postflight plasma thyroid hormones. Leach, C.S., Johnson, P.C., Driscoll, T.B. Aviation, space, and environmental medicine. (1977) [Pubmed]
  26. Positive visual phenomena in space: A scientific case and a safety issue in space travel. Sannita, W.G., Narici, L., Picozza, P. Vision Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  27. Effects of zinc and influence of Acremonium lolii on growth parameters, chlorophyll a fluorescence and antioxidant enzyme activities of ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. cv Apollo). Bonnet, M., Camares, O., Veisseire, P. J. Exp. Bot. (2000) [Pubmed]
  28. Elution of leachable components from resin composites after plasma arc vs standard or soft-start halogen light irradiation. Hofmann, N., Renner, J., Hugo, B., Klaiber, B. Journal of dentistry. (2002) [Pubmed]
  29. Automatic control of human thermal comfort by a liquid-cooled garment. Kuznetz, L.H. Journal of biomechanical engineering. (1980) [Pubmed]
  30. Performance of a static-anode/flat-panel x-ray fluoroscopy system in a diagnostic strength magnetic field: a truly hybrid x-ray/MR imaging system. Fahrig, R., Wen, Z., Ganguly, A., DeCrescenzo, G., Rowlands, J.A., Stevens, G.M., Saunders, R.F., Pelc, N.J. Medical physics. (2005) [Pubmed]
  31. Assessment of Sublethal Effects of Clofentezine on Life-table Parameters in Hawthorn Spider Mite (Tetranychus viennensis). Li, D., Tian, J., Shen, Z. Exp. Appl. Acarol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  32. Matched-pair analysis of all-polyethylene versus metal-backed tibial components. Udomkiat, P., Dorr, L.D., Long, W. The Journal of arthroplasty. (2001) [Pubmed]
  33. Metabolic profiling of saponins in Medicago sativa and Medicago truncatula using HPLC coupled to an electrospray ion-trap mass spectrometer. Huhman, D.V., Sumner, L.W. Phytochemistry (2002) [Pubmed]
  34. Apollo total knee replacements in University Malaya Medical Centre: a short-term outcome. Abbas, A.A., Merican, A.M., Kwan, M.K., Mohamad, J.A. Med. J. Malaysia (2006) [Pubmed]
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