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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Spacecraft

  • Onboard of several spacecrafts (Apollo 16, Spacelab 1, LDEF), spores of Bacillus subtilis were exposed to selected parameters of space, such as space vacuum, different spectral ranges of solar UV-radiation and cosmic rays, applied separately or in combination, and we have studied their survival and genetic changes after retrieval [1].

High impact information on Spacecraft

  • The use of this detector permits a registration of the LET spectrum of charged particles within wide range of dE/dx and during the last years it has already been successfully used on board the MIR station, Space Shuttles and "Kosmos" spacecrafts [2].
  • Energy spectrum of iron nuclei measured inside the MIR space craft using CR-39 track detectors [3].
  • Jupiter's atmosphere, as observed in the 1979 Voyager space craft images, is characterized by 12 zonal jet streams and about 80 vortices, the largest of which are the Great Red Spot and three White Ovals that had formed in the 1930s [4].
  • Similar changes were also observed in monkeys, space-flown on "Kosmos" biosatellites [5].
  • When the VEGA and GIOTTO spacecrafts flew by comet p/Halley in 1986 the mass-spectrometers Puma and PIA measured the composition of cometary dust particles impacting at speeds of well above 65 km/s. Ion formation upon impact lead to mostly atomic ions [6].

Anatomical context of Spacecraft

  • With the exception of triacylglycerol accumulation in bone marrow, these increases disappeared 25 days after biosatellite landing [7].
  • Spaceflight aboard the "Cosmos-605" artificial satellite during 22 d does not have a substantial effect upon the activity of enzymes involved in energy metabolism--lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase--in cytoplasm of the giant neurons of the dorsocaudal part of the Deiters' nucleus and cortex layers of the cerebellar nodulus in rats [8].
  • The indicators of adrenomedullary activity (catecholamine content (CA) and the activity of the catecholamine-synthesizing enzymes tyrosine hydrozylase (TH) and dopamine-beta-hydrozylase (DBH) were measured in the adrenal glands of rats living in a state of weightlessness for 18.5-19.5 days on board the biosatellites COSMOS 936 and COSMOS 1129 [9].

Associations of Spacecraft with chemical compounds

  • It will use both ground-based and flight research opportunities such as those found in current on-going programs, on Spacelab and unmanned biosatellite flights, and during Space Station Freedom missions [10].
  • They were injected with tetracycline for a second and third time on the 6th and 27th days, respectively, after recovery of the Biosatellite [11].
  • Four cultures were launched in each of the spacecrafts (Apollo and Soyuz) [12].
  • The isoenzyme composition of lactate dehydrogenase of soleus and plantaris muscles of rats flown for 20.5 d aboard the biosatellite Cosmos-690 and irradiated with a dose of 800 rad was investigated [13].
  • In the overall design an astronaut breathing a mixture of 30% O2 in N2 for 4-5 h in a space craft at 11.9 psia can transfer to a space station filled with the same mix at 8.7 psia and, after a further 4-5 h, go EVA at any time without any oxygen prebreathing at any stage [14].

Gene context of Spacecraft

  • Cosmic dosimetry using TLD aboard spacecrafts of the "Cosmos" series [15].
  • Plants can be used to recycle food, oxygen, and water in a closed habitat (e.g., on the moon, Mars, or in a space craft [16].
  • Plasma and tissue lipids in male SPF Wistar rats flown for 18.5 days aboard the Cosmos 936 biosatellite were analyzed [7].
  • The increase of plasma corticosterone concentration and of the activity of rapidly (TAT, TP, SD) and slowly activating enzymes (ALT, AST) was found in F group 6-10 hr after space flight (18.5 days on biosatellite COSMOS 1129) [17].


  1. Responses of Bacillus subtilis spores to space environment: results from experiments in space. Horneck, G. Origins of life and evolution of the biosphere : the journal of the International Society for the Study of the Origin of Life. (1993) [Pubmed]
  2. Radiation measurement on the International Space Station. Akopova, A.B., Manaseryan, M.M., Melkonyan, A.A., Tatikyan, S.S.h., Potapov, Y. Radiation measurements. (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Energy spectrum of iron nuclei measured inside the MIR space craft using CR-39 track detectors. Gunther, W., Leugner, D., Becker, E., Flesch, F., Heinrich, W., Huntrup, G., Reitz, G., Rocher, H., Streibel, T. Radiation measurements. (1999) [Pubmed]
  4. Prediction of a global climate change on Jupiter. Marcus, P.S. Nature (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. Influence of repetitive Gz acceleration on structural and metabolic profile of m. vastus lateralis in monkeys exposed to 30 day bedrest. Belozerova, I.N., Matveeva, O.A., Kuznetsov, S.L., Nemirovskaya, T.L., Shenkman, B.S. Journal of gravitational physiology : a journal of the International Society for Gravitational Physiology. (2000) [Pubmed]
  6. Mass-spectrometric in situ studies of cometary organics for p/Halley and options for the future. Kissel, J., Krueger, F.R. Advances in space research : the official journal of the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR). (1995) [Pubmed]
  7. The effect of artificial gravity on plasma and tissue lipids in rats: the Cosmos 936 experiment. Ahlers, I., Tigranyan, R.A., Praslicka, M. Advances in space research : the official journal of the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR). (1981) [Pubmed]
  8. Quantitative cyto- and histochemical studies of the Deiter's nucleus and nodular cortex of cerebellum in rats exposed to weightlessness. Krasnov, I.B. Aviation, space, and environmental medicine. (1975) [Pubmed]
  9. Activity of the sympathetic-adrenomedullary system in rats after space flight on the Cosmos biosatellites. Kvetnansky, R., Vigas, M., Tigranyan, R.A., Nemeth, S., Macho, L. Advances in space research : the official journal of the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR). (1981) [Pubmed]
  10. The space life sciences strategy for the 21st century. Nicogossian, A.E., Gaiser, K.K. Acta astronautica. (1992) [Pubmed]
  11. Effect of spaceflight on the non-weight-bearing bones of rat skeleton. Simmons, D.J., Russell, J.E., Winter, F., Tran Van, P., Vignery, A., Baron, R., Rosenberg, G.D., Walker, W.V. Am. J. Physiol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  12. Growth-rate periodicity of Streptomyces levoris during space flight. Rogers, T.D., Brower, M.E., Taylor, G.R. Life sciences and space research. (1977) [Pubmed]
  13. Effect of penetrating radiation on skeletal muscles of rats in weightlessness. Petrova, N.V., Portugalov, V.V. Aviation, space, and environmental medicine. (1976) [Pubmed]
  14. Compatible atmospheres for a space suit, space station, and shuttle based on physiological principles. Hills, B.A. Aviation, space, and environmental medicine. (1985) [Pubmed]
  15. Cosmic dosimetry using TLD aboard spacecrafts of the "Cosmos" series. Hubner, K., Schmidt, P., Fellinger, J. Acta astronautica. (1994) [Pubmed]
  16. Biogenerative life-support system: farming on the moon. Salisbury, F.B. Acta astronautica. (1991) [Pubmed]
  17. Metabolic changes in the animals subjected to space flight. Macho, L., Nemeth, S., Kvetnansky, R., Fickova, M., Tigranian, R.A., Serova, L. Acta astronautica. (1982) [Pubmed]
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