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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

MIP-1alpha, MIP-1beta, RANTES, and ATAC/lymphotactin function together with IFN-gamma as type 1 cytokines.

We analyzed for the first time the expression of chemokines in subpopulations of the murine immune system at the single-cell level. We demonstrate in vitro and in a model of murine listeriosis that macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1alpha, MIP-1beta, regulated on activation normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES), and activation-induced, T cell-derived, and chemokine-related cytokine (ATAC)/lymphotactin are cosecreted to a high degree with IFN-gamma by activated individual natural killer (NK), CD8(+) T, and CD4(+) T helper 1 (Th1) cells. Functionally, ATAC and the CC chemokines cooperate with IFN-gamma in the up-regulation of CD40, IL-12, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, molecules playing a central role in the effector phase of macrophages. Our data indicate that (i) MIP-1alpha, MIP-1beta, RANTES, and ATAC are not only chemoattractants but also coactivators of macrophages, (ii) MIP-1alpha, MIP-1beta, RANTES, and ATAC constitute together with IFN-gamma a group of "type 1 cytokines," and (iii) these cytokines act together as a functional unit that is used by NK cells in the innate phase and then "handed over" to CD8(+) T cells in the antigen-specific phase of the immune defense, thus bridging the two components of a Th1 immune reaction.[1]


  1. MIP-1alpha, MIP-1beta, RANTES, and ATAC/lymphotactin function together with IFN-gamma as type 1 cytokines. Dorner, B.G., Scheffold, A., Rolph, M.S., Huser, M.B., Kaufmann, S.H., Radbruch, A., Flesch, I.E., Kroczek, R.A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2002) [Pubmed]
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