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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Activation of JNK1, RSK2, and MSK1 is involved in serine 112 phosphorylation of Bad by ultraviolet B radiation.

The Bcl-2 family member Bad is a pro-apoptotic protein, and phosphorylation of Bad by cytokines and growth factors promotes cell survival in many cell types. Induction of apoptosis by UV radiation is well documented. However, little is known about UV activation of cell survival pathways. Here, we demonstrate that UVB induces Bad phosphorylation at serine 112 in JNK1, RSK2, and MSK1-dependent pathways. Inhibition of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases including ERKs, JNKs, and p38 kinase by the use of their respective dominant negative mutant or a specific inhibitor for MEK1 or p38 kinase, PD98059 or SB202190, resulted in abrogation of UVB-induced phosphorylation of Bad at serine 112. Incubation of active MAP kinase members with Bad protein showed serine 112 phosphorylation of Bad by JNK1 only. However, activated RSK2 and MSK1, downstream kinases of ERKs and p38 kinase, respectively, also phosphorylated Bad at serine 112 in vitro. Cells from a Coffin-Lowry syndrome patient (deficient in RSK2) or expressing an N-terminal or C-terminal kinase-dead mutant of MSK1 were defective for UVB-induced serine 112 phosphorylation of Bad. Furthermore, MAP kinase pathway-dependent serine 112 phosphorylation was shown to be required for dissociation of Bad from Bcl-X(L). These data illustrated that UVB-induced phosphorylation of Bad at serine 112 was mediated through MAP kinase signaling pathways in which JNK1, RSK2, and MSK1 served as direct mediators.[1]


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