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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Structural gene organization and evolutionary aspects of the V-ATPase accessory subunit Ac45.

The vacuolar H+-ATPase ( V-ATPase) is a multisubunit enzyme that couples ATP hydrolysis to proton pumping across membranes. The intracellular targeting and activity of the V-ATPase may be regulated via proteins that interact with the pump such as the accessory subunit Ac45. Here we report the isolation and characterization of the gene encoding Ac45. This single-copy gene is located in a gene-dense region of chromosome Xq and consists of 10 exons spanning approximately 8 kb in the mouse and human genomes. The gene structure is poorly conserved in that its invertebrate orthologs of Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster encompass only six and four exons extending over 4.1 and 2.1 kb, respectively. Furthermore, the overall degree of amino acid sequence identity between the mammalian and invertebrate Ac45 proteins is very low (<18%), except for a surprisingly highly conserved putative targeting motif in the carboxy-terminal region. Primer extension analysis revealed that the mouse Ac45 gene contains two major transcription initiation sites. The start sites are not preceded by a clear CAAT-box and are located in a CpG island. The most downstream start site contains a TATA-box and transcriptional regulatory elements such as PEA-3, F2F, Maz and Sp1. The limited number of regulatory DNA elements common in the genes encoding Ac45 and V-ATPase subunits suggests a differential regulation of these genes. Together with the finding that Ac45 appears to occur only in multicellular organisms, these results indicate that this accessory subunit directs the V-ATPase to specialized and complex vacuolar systems.[1]


  1. Structural gene organization and evolutionary aspects of the V-ATPase accessory subunit Ac45. Schoonderwoert, V.T., Martens, G.J. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (2002) [Pubmed]
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