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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Interferons inhibit tumor necrosis factor-alpha-mediated matrix metalloproteinase-9 activation via interferon regulatory factor-1 binding competition with NF-kappa B.

Enhanced expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) correlates with invasion during tumor progression. Interferons (IFNs) inhibit MMP-9 activation in response to tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and the latter activates the MMP-9 gene through NF-kappaB. Understanding the molecular basis for MMP-9 inhibition may provide tools to control cell invasion. The data reported here show the critical role of interferon regulatory factor-1 (IRF1) in the inhibition of MMP-9. (i) IFN treatment suppresses TNF-alpha- induced MMP-9 reporter activity in STAT1(+/+) cells but not in STAT1(-/-) cells. (ii) IRF1 transfection blocks TNF-alpha- mediated MMP-9 activation. (iii) IFNs phosphorylate STAT1 and induce IRF1 but do not affect Ikappa-B degradation nor NF-kappaB nuclear translocation. (iv) Nuclear NF-kappaB (p50/ p65) and IRF1, but not STAT1, bind to the MMP-9 promoter region containing an IFN-responsive-like element overlapping the NF-kappaB-binding site. (v) Recombinant IRF1, although unable to bind to an NF-kappaB consensus sequence, competes with NF-kappaB proteins for binding to the MMP-9 promoter. (vi) Conversely recombinant p50/ p65 proteins reduce IRF1-DNA binding. (vii) In cells cotransfected with IRF1 and/or p65 expression vectors, an excess of IRF1 reduces MMP-9 reporter activity, whereas an excess of p65 blocks the inhibitory effect of IFN-gamma. Thus, in contrast to the known synergism between IRF1 and NF-kappaB, our data identify a novel role for IRF1 as a competitive inhibitor of NF-kappaB binding to the particular MMP-9 promoter context.[1]


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