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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Sam68 associates with the SH3 domains of Grb2 recruiting GAP to the Grb2-SOS complex in insulin receptor signaling.

The 68 kDa Src substrate associated during mitosis ( Sam68) is an RNA binding protein with Src homology (SH) 2 and 3 domain binding sites. We have recently found that Sam68 is a substrate of the insulin receptor ( IR) that translocates from the nucleus to the cytoplasm and that Tyr- phosphorylated Sam68 associates with the SH2 domains of p85 PI3K and GAP, in vivo and in vitro. In the present work, we have further demonstrated the cytoplasmic localization of Sam68, which is increased in cells overexpressing IR. Besides, we sought to further study the association of Sam68 with the Ras-GAP pathway by assessing the interactions with SH3 domains of Grb2. We employed GST-fusion proteins containing the SH3 domains of Grb2 (N or C), and recombinant Sam68 for in vitro studies. In vivo studies of protein-protein interaction were assessed by co-immunoprecipitation experiments with specific antibodies against Sam68, GAP, Grb2, SOS, and phosphotyrosine; and by affinity precipitation with the fusion proteins (SH3-Grb2). Insulin stimulation of HTC- IR cells promotes phosphorylation of Sam68 and its association with the SH2 domains of GAP. Sam68 is constitutively associated with the SH3 domains of Grb2 and it does not change upon insulin stimulation, but Sam68 is Tyr-phosphorylated and promotes the association of GAP with the Grb2-SOS complex. In vitro studies with fusion proteins showed that Sam68 association with Grb2 is preferentially mediated by the C-terminal SH3 domains of Grb2. In conclusion, Sam68 is a substrate of the IR and may have a role as a docking protein in IR signaling, recruiting GAP to the Grb2-SOS complex, and in this way it may modulate Ras activity.[1]


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