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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

A novel, essential control for clonality analysis with human androgen receptor gene polymerase chain reaction.

The most widely used technique for determining clonality based on X-chromosome inactivation is the human androgen receptor gene polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The reliability of this assay depends critically on the digestion of DNA before PCR with the methylation-sensitive restriction enzyme HpaII. We have developed a novel method for quantitatively monitoring the HpaII digestion in individual samples. Using real-time quantitative PCR we measured the efficiency of HpaII digestion by measuring the amplification of a gene that escapes X-chromosome inactivation (XE169) before and after digestion. This method was tested in blood samples from 30 individuals: 2 healthy donors and 28 patients with myelodysplastic syndrome. We found a lack of XE169 DNA reduction after digestion in the granulocytes of two myelodysplastic syndrome patients leading to a false polyclonal X-chromosome inactivation pattern. In all other samples a significant reduction of XE169 DNA was observed after HpaII digestion. The median reduction was 220-fold, ranging from a 9.0-fold to a 57,000-fold reduction. Also paraffin-embedded malignant tissue was investigated from two samples of patients with mantle cell lymphoma and two samples of patients with colon carcinoma. In three of these cases inefficient HpaII digestion led to inaccurate X-chromosome inactivation pattern ratios. We conclude that monitoring the efficiency of the HpaII digestion in a human androgen receptor gene PCR setting is both necessary and feasible.[1]


  1. A novel, essential control for clonality analysis with human androgen receptor gene polymerase chain reaction. van Dijk, J.P., Heuver, L.H., van der Reijden, B.A., Raymakers, R.A., de Witte, T., Jansen, J.H. Am. J. Pathol. (2002) [Pubmed]
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