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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Inhibition of coral photosynthesis by the antifouling herbicide Irgarol 1051.

International regulation of organotin compounds for use in antifouling paints has led to the development and increased use of replacement compounds, notably the s-triazine herbicide Irgarol 1051. Little is known about the distribution of Irgarol 1051 in tropical waters. Nor has the potential impact of this triazine upon photosynthesis of endosymbiotic microalgae (zooxanthellae) in corals been assessed. In this study Irgarol 1051 was detected in marinas, harbours and coastal waters of the Florida Keys, Bermuda and St. Croix, with concentrations ranging between 3 and 294 ng 1(-1). 14C incubation experiments with isolated zooxanthellae from the common inshore coral Madracis mirabilis showed no incorporation of H14CO3- from the sea water medium after 4-8 h exposure to Irgarol 1051 concentrations as low as 63 ng 1(-1). Reduction in net photosynthesis of intact corals was found at concentrations of l00 ng 1(-1) with little or no photosynthesis at concentrations exceeding 1000 ng 1(-1) after 2-8 h exposure at all irradiances. The data suggest Irgarol 1051 to be both prevalent in tropical marine ecosystems and a potent inhibitor of coral photosynthesis at environmentally relevant concentrations.[1]


  1. Inhibition of coral photosynthesis by the antifouling herbicide Irgarol 1051. Owen, R., Knap, A., Toaspern, M., Carbery, K. Mar. Pollut. Bull. (2002) [Pubmed]
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