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MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Ecosystem


High impact information on Ecosystem

  • Increased levels of CO2 can be found in all terrestrial ecosystems [6].
  • Conceptual and numerical models of nitrogen cycling in temperate forests assume that nitrogen is lost from these ecosystems predominantly by way of inorganic forms, such as nitrate and ammonium ions [7].
  • Soil fertility limits carbon sequestration by forest ecosystems in a CO2-enriched atmosphere [8].
  • Mucin degradation in human colon ecosystems. Isolation and properties of fecal strains that degrade ABH blood group antigens and oligosaccharides from mucin glycoproteins [9].
  • Mucin degradation in human colon ecosystems. Evidence for the existence and role of bacterial subpopulations producing glycosidases as extracellular enzymes [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Ecosystem

  • Beta-cypermethrin, a synthetic pyrethroid pesticide and potential toxic pollutant, contaminating aquatic ecosystems was investigated in the present study for acute toxicity [11].
  • Synthetic pyrethroids are widely used insecticides, and contamination of surface aquatic ecosystems by pyrethroid residues from runoff is of particular concern because of potential aquatic toxicity [12].
  • Inorganic fluorides were declared toxic under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act in 1993 based on their potential to cause long-term harmful effects in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, but information on the toxicity of sediment-associated fluoride to freshwater benthic organisms was considered incomplete [13].
  • Toxicity data on these benzothiazole degradation products is important because of concerns regarding their release, degradation, persistence, and non-target organism effects in aquatic ecosystems [14].
  • In order to quantitatively characterize the risk associated with silver in aquatic ecosystems, the bioavailabilities and toxicities of silver cysteinate and silver glutathionate were characterized [15].

Biological context of Ecosystem

  • Biotransformation of monoterpenes, bile acids, and other isoprenoids in anaerobic ecosystems [16].
  • The biological complexity of the mat far exceeds that observed in other polysaccharide-rich microbial ecosystems, such as the human and mouse distal guts, and suggests that positive feedbacks exist between chemical complexity and biological diversity [17].
  • Natural selection results in ecosystems organized to maintain high productivity of organic matter and diversity of species, just as competition among individuals in Adam Smith's ideal economy favours high production of wealth and diversity of occupations [18].
  • In ecosystems where excretion by fish is a major flux of nutrients, the nitrogen (N) to phosphorus (P) ratio released by fish can be important in shaping patterns of algal biomass, community composition, primary production, and nutrient limitation [19].
  • To date, there are no published MHC sequences from the California sea lion (Zalophus californianus), a thriving species that, by feeding high on the marine food web, could be a sentinel for disturbances in marine and coastal ecosystems [20].

Anatomical context of Ecosystem

  • Propanil and its metabolites are transported within characteristic ditch ecosystems in the production landscape of northeast Arkansas. Runoff from these ditch ecosystems is further transported to a river or other water body supplied by the Mississippi River Alluvial aquifer [21].
  • In this article we examine the levels of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury, and selenium in the gonads, liver and muscle of Florida gar (Lepisosteus platyrhincus) from Lake Okeechobee in south-central Florida. Gar are top-level predators in freshwater ecosystems [22].
  • Characterization of Ni transport across cellular membranes is an important step in understanding both the processes underlying homeostatic regulation of Ni, and the toxicological implications of excessive Ni exposure in aquatic ecosystems [23].

Associations of Ecosystem with chemical compounds

  • Humans transformed Western Atlantic coastal marine ecosystems before modern ecological investigations began [24].
  • Transport and fate of trifluoroacetate in upland forest and wetland ecosystems [25].
  • TFA was added experimentally to an upland, northern hardwood forest and to a small forest wetland ecosystem within the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest in New Hampshire. Inputs of TFA were not transported conservatively through these ecosystems; instead, significant amounts of TFA were retained within the vegetation and soil compartments [25].
  • Microsensor studies have shown that at the oxic/anoxic interface of many ecosystems nitrite and ammonia occur in the absence of oxygen [26].
  • This information is providing an important platform for understanding core mechanisms that control and regulate bacterial growth, survival, signaling, and fermentative processes and, in some cases, potentially underlying probiotic activities within complex microbial and host ecosystems [27].

Gene context of Ecosystem

  • All the results indicated that antioxidant defense components, namely, Se-GPx, GRd, and GSH, are sensitive parameters that could be useful biomarkers for the evaluation of contaminated aquatic ecosystems [28].
  • A total of 61 S. cerevisiae strains, 60 of them isolated from wine ecosystems, were evaluated for the presence of the gene encoding endopolygalacturonase (PGU1) and for polygalacturonase (PG) activity [29].
  • Mucin degradation in human colon ecosystems. Degradation of hog gastric mucin by fecal extracts and fecal cultures [30].
  • Hepatic cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1) expression in fishes is frequently used to evaluate bioavailable aromatic hydrocarbon contamination of aquatic ecosystems [31].
  • The geochemical energy budgets for high-temperature microbial ecosystems such as occur at Yellowstone National Park have been unclear [32].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Ecosystem


  1. Detection and characterization of lactose-utilizing Lactococcus spp. in natural ecosystems. Klijn, N., Weerkamp, A.H., de Vos, W.M. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  2. Fate of viruses in artificial wetlands. Gersberg, R.M., Lyon, S.R., Brenner, R., Elkins, B.V. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  3. Investigation of acute toxicity of permethrin on guppies Poecilia reticulata. Başer, S., Erkoç, F., Selvi, M., Koçak, O. Chemosphere (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. Myxidium leei (Myxozoa) infections in aquarium-reared Mediterranean fish species. Padrós, F., Palenzuela, O., Hispano, C., Tosas, O., Zarza, C., Crespo, S., Alvarez-Pellitero, P. Dis. Aquat. Org. (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. Ultrastructural studies on the respiratory tract of mice inoculated intranasally with L. fermentum. Santos, V., Cangemi, R., Winik, B., Nader, M.E. Biocell (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. Altered performance of forest pests under atmospheres enriched by CO2 and O3. Percy, K.E., Awmack, C.S., Lindroth, R.L., Kubiske, M.E., Kopper, B.J., Isebrands, J.G., Pregitzer, K.S., Hendrey, G.R., Dickson, R.E., Zak, D.R., Oksanen, E., Sober, J., Harrington, R., Karnosky, D.F. Nature (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. Nitrogen loss from unpolluted South American forests mainly via dissolved organic compounds. Perakis, S.S., Hedin, L.O. Nature (2002) [Pubmed]
  8. Soil fertility limits carbon sequestration by forest ecosystems in a CO2-enriched atmosphere. Oren, R., Ellsworth, D.S., Johnsen, K.H., Phillips, N., Ewers, B.E., Maier, C., Schäfer, K.V., McCarthy, H., Hendrey, G., McNulty, S.G., Katul, G.G. Nature (2001) [Pubmed]
  9. Mucin degradation in human colon ecosystems. Isolation and properties of fecal strains that degrade ABH blood group antigens and oligosaccharides from mucin glycoproteins. Hoskins, L.C., Agustines, M., McKee, W.B., Boulding, E.T., Kriaris, M., Niedermeyer, G. J. Clin. Invest. (1985) [Pubmed]
  10. Mucin degradation in human colon ecosystems. Evidence for the existence and role of bacterial subpopulations producing glycosidases as extracellular enzymes. Hoskins, L.C., Boulding, E.T. J. Clin. Invest. (1981) [Pubmed]
  11. Investigation of acute toxicity of beta-cypermethrin on guppies Poecilia reticulata. Polat, H., Erkoç, F.U., Viran, R., Koçak, O. Chemosphere (2002) [Pubmed]
  12. Isomer selectivity in aquatic toxicity and biodegradation of bifenthrin and permethrin. Liu, W., Gan, J., Lee, S., Werner, I. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  13. Toxicity of aqueous and sediment-associated fluoride to freshwater organisms. Metcalfe-Smith, J.L., Holtze, K.E., Sirota, G.R., Reid, J.J., de Solla, S.R. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  14. Comparative aquatic toxicity evaluation of 2-(thiocyanomethylthio)benzothiazole and selected degradation products using Ceriodaphnia dubia. Nawrocki, S.T., Drake, K.D., Watson, C.F., Foster, G.D., Maier, K.J. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. Effects of ligand-bound silver on Ceriodaphnia dubia. Bielmyer, G.K., Bell, R.A., Klaine, S.J. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  16. Biotransformation of monoterpenes, bile acids, and other isoprenoids in anaerobic ecosystems. Hylemon, P.B., Harder, J. FEMS Microbiol. Rev. (1998) [Pubmed]
  17. Unexpected diversity and complexity of the guerrero negro hypersaline microbial mat. Ley, R.E., Harris, J.K., Wilcox, J., Spear, J.R., Miller, S.R., Bebout, B.M., Maresca, J.A., Bryant, D.A., Sogin, M.L., Pace, N.R. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  18. Does natural selection organize ecosystems for the maintenance of high productivity and diversity? Leigh, E.G., Vermeij, G.J. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond., B, Biol. Sci. (2002) [Pubmed]
  19. Nutrient recycling by two phosphorus-rich grazing catfish: the potential for phosphorus-limitation of fish growth. Hood, J.M., Vanni, M.J., Flecker, A.S. Oecologia (2005) [Pubmed]
  20. Molecular characterization of expressed DQA and DQB genes in the California sea lion ( Zalophus californianus). Bowen, L., Aldridge, B.M., Gulland, F., Woo, J., Van Bonn, W., DeLong, R., Stott, J.L., Johnson, M.L. Immunogenetics (2002) [Pubmed]
  21. Acute and chronic toxicity of the herbicide Stam M-4 in field and laboratory exposures. Moore, M.T., Farris, J.L. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  22. Metal levels in tissues of Florida gar (Lepisosteus platyrhincus) from Lake Okeechobee. Burger, J., Orlando, E.F., Gochfeld, M., Binczik, G.A., Guillette, L.J. Environmental monitoring and assessment. (2004) [Pubmed]
  23. Characterization of Ni transport into brush border membrane vesicles (BBMVs) isolated from the kidney of the freshwater rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Pane, E.F., Glover, C.N., Patel, M., Wood, C.M. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (2006) [Pubmed]
  24. What was natural in the coastal oceans? Jackson, J.B. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2001) [Pubmed]
  25. Transport and fate of trifluoroacetate in upland forest and wetland ecosystems. Likens, G.E., Tartowski, S.L., Berger, T.W., Richey, D.G., Driscoll, C.T., Frank, H.G., Klein, A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1997) [Pubmed]
  26. The anaerobic oxidation of ammonium. Jetten, M.S., Strous, M., van de Pas-Schoonen, K.T., Schalk, J., van Dongen, U.G., van de Graaf, A.A., Logemann, S., Muyzer, G., van Loosdrecht, M.C., Kuenen, J.G. FEMS Microbiol. Rev. (1998) [Pubmed]
  27. Genomic features of lactic acid bacteria effecting bioprocessing and health. Klaenhammer, T.R., Barrangou, R., Buck, B.L., Azcarate-Peril, M.A., Altermann, E. FEMS Microbiol. Rev. (2005) [Pubmed]
  28. Glutathione reductase, selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase, glutathione levels, and lipid peroxidation in freshwater bivalves, Unio tumidus, as biomarkers of aquatic contamination in field studies. Cossu, C., Doyotte, A., Jacquin, M.C., Babut, M., Exinger, A., Vasseur, P. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. (1997) [Pubmed]
  29. Evaluation of polygalacturonase activity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine strains. Fernández-González, M., Ubeda, J.F., Vasudevan, T.G., Cordero Otero, R.R., Briones, A.I. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. (2004) [Pubmed]
  30. Mucin degradation in human colon ecosystems. Degradation of hog gastric mucin by fecal extracts and fecal cultures. Variyam, E.P., Hoskins, L.C. Gastroenterology (1981) [Pubmed]
  31. Is hepatic cytochrome P4501A1 expression predictive of hepatic burdens of dioxins, furans, and PCBs in Atlantic tomcod from the Hudson River estuary? Yuan, Z., Wirgin, M., Courtenay, S., Ikonomou, M., Wirgin, I. Aquat. Toxicol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  32. Hydrogen and bioenergetics in the Yellowstone geothermal ecosystem. Spear, J.R., Walker, J.J., McCollom, T.M., Pace, N.R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2005) [Pubmed]
  33. Water quality characteristics of vegetated groundwater-fed ditches in a riparian peatland. Scholz, M., Trepel, M. Sci. Total Environ. (2004) [Pubmed]
  34. Elevated CO2 stimulates net accumulations of carbon and nitrogen in land ecosystems: a meta-analysis. Luo, Y., Hui, D., Zhang, D. Ecology (2006) [Pubmed]
  35. Calcium carbonate phosphate binding ion exchange filtration and accelerated denitrification improve public health standards and combat eutrophication in aquatic ecosystems. Yanamadala, V. Water Environ. Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
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