The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of Photosynthesis

  • To explore how energy-generating processes of the Synechococcus ecotypes track natural light and O2 conditions, we evaluated accumulation of transcripts encoding proteins involved in photosynthesis, respiration, and fermentation [1].
  • Some cyanobacteria couple oxygenic photosynthesis in vegetative cells with O2-sensitive N2 fixation in differentiated cells called heterocysts [2].
  • Growth and photosynthetic characteristics of a selected mutant strain under photoautotrophic conditions were similar to those of the wild type, suggesting that the function of PsaL is dispensable for photosynthesis in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 [3].
  • Previous genetic analysis indicated that the photosynthesis gene cluster from Rhodobacter capsulatus coded for the transcription factor, CrtJ, that is responsible for aerobic repression of bacteriochlorophyll, carotenoid, and light harvesting-II gene expression [4].
  • Nuclear extracts from maize leaves have been shown previously to contain a factor, MNF1, that interacts with both the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter and the promoter of the maize gene for phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, which is involved in C4 photosynthesis [5].

High impact information on Photosynthesis

  • Photosystem II (PSII) is a key component of photosynthesis, the process of converting sunlight into the chemical energy of life [6].
  • These biochemical characteristics of C4 photosynthesis in cells around the vascular bundles of stems of C3 plants might explain why C4 photosynthesis has evolved independently many times [7].
  • Characteristics of C4 photosynthesis in stems and petioles of C3 flowering plants [7].
  • This approach depends on accurate estimates of the carbon isotopic discrimination of terrestrial photosynthesis (Delta; ref. 5) at large regional scales, yet terrestrial ecosystem heterogeneity makes such estimates problematic [8].
  • Structures resembling remarkably preserved bacterial and cyanobacterial microfossils from about 3,465-million-year-old Apex cherts of the Warrawoona Group in Western Australia currently provide the oldest morphological evidence for life on Earth and have been taken to support an early beginning for oxygen-producing photosynthesis [9].

Chemical compound and disease context of Photosynthesis


Biological context of Photosynthesis

  • Here we report the first biophysical evidence demonstrating that aerobic bacterial photosynthesis is widespread in tropical surface waters of the eastern Pacific Ocean and in temperate coastal waters of the northwestern Atlantic. Our results indicate that these organisms account for 2-5% of the photosynthetic electron transport in the upper ocean [15].
  • These photosynthetic cells possess high activities of enzymes characteristic of C4 photosynthesis, which allow the decarboxylation of four-carbon organic acids from the xylem and phloem, thus releasing CO2 for photosynthesis [7].
  • Increased iron supply led to elevated phytoplankton biomass and rates of photosynthesis in surface waters, causing a large drawdown of carbon dioxide and macronutrients, and elevated dimethyl sulphide levels after 13 days [16].
  • Here we review evidence for an important role of LGT in the evolution of photosynthesis, aerobic respiration, nitrogen fixation, sulfate reduction, methylotrophy, isoprenoid biosynthesis, quorum sensing, flotation (gas vesicles), thermophily, and halophily [17].
  • We present evidence that hexokinase is involved in sensing endogenous levels of sugars in photosynthetic tissues and that it participates in the regulation of senescence, photosynthesis, and growth in seedlings as well as in mature plants [18].

Anatomical context of Photosynthesis

  • (ii) Transcripts of the rpo genes and of rps15, but not of genes involved in photosynthesis and related processes (psbA, rbcL, atpI-H), were abundantly accumulated in ribosome-deficient plastids [19].
  • The pathogen adheres to a beta-galactoside-containing receptor in the coral mucus, penetrates into epithelial cells, differentiates into a viable-but-not-culturable form, multiplies, and produces a proline-rich peptide toxin that inhibits photosynthesis of the zooxanthellae in the presence of ammonia [20].
  • In the present study, we examined the effects of the transformation of tobacco plants with cDNA for glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase from squash on the unsaturation of fatty acids in thylakoid membrane lipids and the response of photosynthesis to various temperatures [21].
  • These results suggest that reduction of extracellular ferricyanide (mediated at the plasma membrane) interacts with both photosynthesis and respiration, and that both of these processes contribute NADPH in the light [22].
  • The time required for recovery of photosynthesis from inhibition during persistent CO2 stress was similar to the time required for establishing steady-state pH values in the cytosol under acid stress [23].

Associations of Photosynthesis with chemical compounds

  • Kranz anatomy is not essential for terrestrial C4 plant photosynthesis [24].
  • One implication of this limitation is that a larger iron supply to the region in glacial times could have stimulated algal photosynthesis, leading to lower concentrations of atmospheric CO2 [25].
  • We suggest that anoxygenic photosynthesis is a relatively recent phenomenon in the Black Sea initiated by shallowing of the chemocline over the past decade and development of an anoxic layer devoid of O2 and H2S [26].
  • In their model, atmospheric CO2 falls below the critical level for C3 photosynthesis, 150 parts per million (p.p.m.), in only 100 Myr, and this is assumed to mark the demise of the biosphere as a whole [27].
  • RuBisCO, D-ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase (EC, converts carbon dioxide to sugar in the first step of photosynthesis [28].

Gene context of Photosynthesis

  • Here we show that the gene encoding PsbS, an intrinsic chlorophyll-binding protein of photosystem II, is necessary for nonphotochemical quenching but not for efficient light harvesting and photosynthesis [29].
  • Light acts both directly as a signal and indirectly through photosynthesis to regulate the expression of genes encoding nitrate reductase (NR) [30].
  • The growth and photosynthesis of dgd1 dgd2 were affected more severely compared with those of dgd1, indicating that the residual amount of DGDG in dgd1 is crucial for normal plant development [31].
  • The high-chlorophyll fluorescence photosynthesis mutant hcf109 of Arabidopsis was characterized in detail to gain insights into the regulatory mechanism of RNA processing in higher plants [32].
  • During photo-oxidative stress, chlorophyll content and photosynthetic quantum yield were slightly reduced in vte1 as compared with wild type indicating a potential role for tocopherol in maintaining an optimal photosynthesis rate under high-light stress [33].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Photosynthesis


  1. In situ analysis of nitrogen fixation and metabolic switching in unicellular thermophilic cyanobacteria inhabiting hot spring microbial mats. Steunou, A.S., Bhaya, D., Bateson, M.M., Melendrez, M.C., Ward, D.M., Brecht, E., Peters, J.W., Kühl, M., Grossman, A.R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2006) [Pubmed]
  2. A two-component system mediates developmental regulation of biosynthesis of a heterocyst polysaccharide. Zhou, R., Wolk, C.P. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. Targeted inactivation of the gene psaL encoding a subunit of photosystem I of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Chitnis, V.P., Xu, Q., Yu, L., Golbeck, J.H., Nakamoto, H., Xie, D.L., Chitnis, P.R. J. Biol. Chem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  4. DNA binding characteristics of CrtJ. A redox-responding repressor of bacteriochlorophyll, carotenoid, and light harvesting-II gene expression in Rhodobacter capsulatus. Ponnampalam, S.N., Bauer, C.E. J. Biol. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  5. Molecular cloning of two DNA-binding proteins of maize that are structurally different but interact with the same sequence motif. Yanagisawa, S., Izui, K. J. Biol. Chem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  6. Plants lacking the main light-harvesting complex retain photosystem II macro-organization. Ruban, A.V., Wentworth, M., Yakushevska, A.E., Andersson, J., Lee, P.J., Keegstra, W., Dekker, J.P., Boekema, E.J., Jansson, S., Horton, P. Nature (2003) [Pubmed]
  7. Characteristics of C4 photosynthesis in stems and petioles of C3 flowering plants. Hibberd, J.M., Quick, W.P. Nature (2002) [Pubmed]
  8. Plant biomarkers in aerosols record isotopic discrimination of terrestrial photosynthesis. Conte, M.H., Weber, J.C. Nature (2002) [Pubmed]
  9. Questioning the evidence for Earth's oldest fossils. Brasier, M.D., Green, O.R., Jephcoat, A.P., Kleppe, A.K., Van Kranendonk, M.J., Lindsay, J.F., Steele, A., Grassineau, N.V. Nature (2002) [Pubmed]
  10. A novel mechanism for the regulation of photosynthesis gene expression by the TspO outer membrane protein of Rhodobacter sphaeroides 2.4.1. Yeliseev, A.A., Kaplan, S. J. Biol. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  11. Ultraviolet light may contribute to geographic and racial blood pressure differences. Rostand, S.G. Hypertension (1997) [Pubmed]
  12. Differential expression of photosynthesis and nitrogen fixation genes in the cyanobacterium Plectonema boryanum. Misra, H.S., Tuli, R. Plant Physiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  13. Phosphatidylglycerol requirement for the function of electron acceptor plastoquinone Q(B) in the photosystem II reaction center. Gombos, Z., Várkonyi, Z., Hagio, M., Iwaki, M., Kovács, L., Masamoto, K., Itoh, S., Wada, H. Biochemistry (2002) [Pubmed]
  14. Mutation of Phe-363 in the photosystem II protein CP47 impairs photoautotrophic growth, alters the chloride requirement, and prevents photosynthesis in the absence of either PSII-O or PSII-V in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Clarke, S.M., Eaton-Rye, J.J. Biochemistry (1999) [Pubmed]
  15. Bacterial photosynthesis in surface waters of the open ocean. Kolber, Z.S., Van Dover, C.L., Niederman, R.A., Falkowski, P.G. Nature (2000) [Pubmed]
  16. A mesoscale phytoplankton bloom in the polar Southern Ocean stimulated by iron fertilization. Boyd, P.W., Watson, A.J., Law, C.S., Abraham, E.R., Trull, T., Murdoch, R., Bakker, D.C., Bowie, A.R., Buesseler, K.O., Chang, H., Charette, M., Croot, P., Downing, K., Frew, R., Gall, M., Hadfield, M., Hall, J., Harvey, M., Jameson, G., LaRoche, J., Liddicoat, M., Ling, R., Maldonado, M.T., McKay, R.M., Nodder, S., Pickmere, S., Pridmore, R., Rintoul, S., Safi, K., Sutton, P., Strzepek, R., Tanneberger, K., Turner, S., Waite, A., Zeldis, J. Nature (2000) [Pubmed]
  17. Lateral gene transfer and the origins of prokaryotic groups. Boucher, Y., Douady, C.J., Papke, R.T., Walsh, D.A., Boudreau, M.E., Nesbø, C.L., Case, R.J., Doolittle, W.F. Annu. Rev. Genet. (2003) [Pubmed]
  18. Overexpression of Arabidopsis hexokinase in tomato plants inhibits growth, reduces photosynthesis, and induces rapid senescence. Dai, N., Schaffer, A., Petreikov, M., Shahak, Y., Giller, Y., Ratner, K., Levine, A., Granot, D. Plant Cell (1999) [Pubmed]
  19. Chloroplast rps15 and the rpoB/C1/C2 gene cluster are strongly transcribed in ribosome-deficient plastids: evidence for a functioning non-chloroplast-encoded RNA polymerase. Hess, W.R., Prombona, A., Fieder, B., Subramanian, A.R., Börner, T. EMBO J. (1993) [Pubmed]
  20. The Vibrio shiloi/Oculina patagonica model system of coral bleaching. Rosenberg, E., Falkovitz, L. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  21. Unsaturation of the membrane lipids of chloroplasts stabilizes the photosynthetic machinery against low-temperature photoinhibition in transgenic tobacco plants. Moon, B.Y., Higashi, S., Gombos, Z., Murata, N. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1995) [Pubmed]
  22. Ferric reduction by iron-limited Chlamydomonas cells interacts with both photosynthesis and respiration. Weger, H.G., Espie, G.S. Planta (2000) [Pubmed]
  23. pH regulation in apoplastic and cytoplasmic cell compartments of leaves. Savchenko, G., Wiese, C., Neimanis, S., Hedrich, R., Heber, U. Planta (2000) [Pubmed]
  24. Kranz anatomy is not essential for terrestrial C4 plant photosynthesis. Voznesenskaya, E.V., Franceschi, V.R., Kiirats, O., Freitag, H., Edwards, G.E. Nature (2001) [Pubmed]
  25. Effect of iron supply on Southern Ocean CO2 uptake and implications for glacial atmospheric CO2. Watson, A.J., Bakker, D.C., Ridgwell, A.J., Boyd, P.W., Law, C.S. Nature (2000) [Pubmed]
  26. Evidence for anoxygenic photosynthesis from the distribution of bacteriochlorophylls in the Black Sea. Repeta, D.J., Simpson, D.J., Jorgensen, B.B., Jannasch, H.W. Nature (1989) [Pubmed]
  27. The life span of the biosphere revisited. Caldeira, K., Kasting, J.F. Nature (1992) [Pubmed]
  28. Sliding-layer conformational change limited by the quaternary structure of plant RuBisCO. Chapman, M.S., Suh, S.W., Cascio, D., Smith, W.W., Eisenberg, D. Nature (1987) [Pubmed]
  29. A pigment-binding protein essential for regulation of photosynthetic light harvesting. Li, X.P., Björkman, O., Shih, C., Grossman, A.R., Rosenquist, M., Jansson, S., Niyogi, K.K. Nature (2000) [Pubmed]
  30. A chlorate-resistant mutant defective in the regulation of nitrate reductase gene expression in Arabidopsis defines a new HY locus. Lin, Y., Cheng, C.L. Plant Cell (1997) [Pubmed]
  31. Disruption of the two digalactosyldiacylglycerol synthase genes DGD1 and DGD2 in Arabidopsis reveals the existence of an additional enzyme of galactolipid synthesis. Kelly, A.A., Froehlich, J.E., Dörmann, P. Plant Cell (2003) [Pubmed]
  32. A nuclear mutant of Arabidopsis with impaired stability on distinct transcripts of the plastid psbB, psbD/C, ndhH, and ndhC operons. Meurer, J., Berger, A., Westhoff, P. Plant Cell (1996) [Pubmed]
  33. Isolation of an Arabidopsis mutant lacking vitamin E and identification of a cyclase essential for all tocopherol biosynthesis. Porfirova, S., Bergmuller, E., Tropf, S., Lemke, R., Dormann, P. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2002) [Pubmed]
  34. Drought-induced guard cell signal transduction involves sphingosine-1-phosphate. Ng, C.K., Carr, K., McAinsh, M.R., Powell, B., Hetherington, A.M. Nature (2001) [Pubmed]
  35. Level of glutathione is regulated by ATP-dependent ligation of glutamate and cysteine through photosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana: mechanism of strong interaction of light intensity with flowering. Ogawa, K., Hatano-Iwasaki, A., Yanagida, M., Iwabuchi, M. Plant Cell Physiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  36. Photosynthesis inhibition of soybean leaves by insecticides. Abdel-Reheem, S., Belal, M.H., Gupta, G. Environ. Pollut. (1991) [Pubmed]
  37. Antagonistic relationships between electron transport and P700 in chloroplasts and intact algae. Rurainski, H.J. Z. Naturforsch., C, Biosci. (1975) [Pubmed]
  38. Degradation of petroleum model compounds immobilized on clay by a hypersaline microbial mat. Grötzschel, S., Köster, J., Abed, R.M., de Beer, D. Biodegradation (2002) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities