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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

TNF-alpha increases the carbohydrate sulfation of CD44: induction of 6-sulfo N-acetyl lactosamine on N- and O-linked glycans.

CD44 and sulfation have both been implicated in leukocyte adhesion. In monocytes, the inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) stimulates CD44 sulfation, and this correlates with the induction of CD44-mediated adhesion events. However, little is known about the sulfation of CD44 or its induction by inflammatory cytokines. We determined that TNF-alpha induces the carbohydrate sulfation of CD44. CD44 was established as a major sulfated cell surface protein on myeloid cells. In the SR91 myeloid cell line, the majority of CD44 sulfation was attributed to the glycosaminoglycan chondroitin sulfate. However, TNF-alpha stimulation increased CD44 sulfation two- to threefold, largely attributed to the increased sulfation of N- and O-linked glycans on CD44. Therefore, TNF-alpha induced a decrease in the percentage of CD44 sulfation due to chondroitin sulfate and an increase due to N- and O-linked sulfation. Furthermore, TNF-alpha induced the expression of 6-sulfo N-acetyl lactosamine (LacNAc)/Lewis x on these cells, which was detected by a monoclonal antibody after neuraminidase treatment. This 6-sulfo LacNAc/Lewis x epitope was induced on N-linked and (to a lesser extent) on O-linked glycans present on CD44. This demonstrates that CD44 is modified by sulfated carbohydrates in myeloid cells and that TNF-alpha modifies both the type and amount of carbohydrate sulfation occurring on CD44. In addition, it demonstrates that TNF-alpha can induce the expression of 6-sulfo N-acetyl glucosamine on both N- and O- linked glycans of CD44 in myeloid cells.[1]


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