The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
Chemical Compound Review

Lactosamine     (2R,3R,4R,5R)-2-amino-3,5,6- trihydroxy-4...

Synonyms: HMDB06591, AR-1D8150, AC1L3O5E, AC1Q6A6C, 13000-25-4, ...
Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of polylactosamine


High impact information on polylactosamine

  • To overcome HAR, we developed an enzymatic carbohydrate remodelling strategy designed to replace expression of the Gal alpha-1,3-Gal xenoepitope on the surface of porcine cells with the non-antigenic universal donor human blood group O antigen, the alpha-1,2-fucosyl lactosamine moiety (H-epitope) [6].
  • (b) Differences in mass were due primarily to variation in carbohydrate moieties, including sulfated aspargine-linked glycopeptides (GP), chondroitin sulfate (CS), and heparan sulfate (HS) glycosaminoglycans, as well as O-linked mucin and polylactosamine structure(s) [7].
  • Here we present evidence that laminin is a major glycoprotein ligand for L-14 in differentiating mouse C2C12 muscle cells and that binding of secreted L-14 to polylactosamine oligosaccharides of substrate laminin induces loss of cell-substratum adhesion [8].
  • The ligand for one of these proteins, E-selectin (LECAM-2, ELAM-1) has been described by several groups to contain a polylactosamine structure bearing a terminal sialic acid residue and at least one fucose residue [9].
  • The enzyme defect in most HEMPAS patients has previously been proposed as a lowered activity of N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase II, resulting in a lack of polylactosamine on proteins and leading to the accumulation of polylactosaminyl lipids [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of polylactosamine


Biological context of polylactosamine


Anatomical context of polylactosamine

  • The plasma membrane glycoproteins of the class 2 mutants were similar to those of MDAY-D2 cells including the presence of sialylated polylactosamine-containing antennae in the asparagine-linked oligosaccharide [18].
  • Stage-specific expression of cancer-associated type 1 and type 2 chain polylactosamine antigens in the developing pancreas of human embryos [19].
  • Affinity-purified human galectin-1 was found to bind to purified polylactosamine-containing glycoproteins and to detergent-solubilized cellular proteins electroblotted onto nitrocellulose membranes [20].
  • Chemical cross-linking experiments have identified binding of endogenous cell-surface Mac-2 to three glycoproteins of molecular masses of 92, 125, and 180 kDa containing alpha-galactosyl and polylactosamine structures on thioglycollate-elicited macrophages [21].
  • Mouse GM979 erythroleukemic cells were found to synthesize the branched form of erythroglycan, a large polylactosamine structure known to be attached to band 3 and possibly to other proteins on human erythrocytes [22].

Associations of polylactosamine with other chemical compounds


Gene context of polylactosamine

  • (formula; see text) To understand the structural basis of F. nucleatum binding, we screened glycolipids and neoglycolipids carrying carbohydrate structures related to those of the PRG for receptor activity; components with unsubstituted terminal lactosamine residues best supported adherence [27].
  • The results showed that the single CD52 N-glycosylation site is occupied by large sialylated, polylactosamine-containing, core-fucosylated tetraantennary oligosaccharides [28].
  • The O-linked glycans, which were estimated to comprise approximately 85% of the total sugars on gelatinase B, mainly consisted of type 2 cores with Galbeta1,4GlcNAc (lactosamine) extensions, with or without sialic acid or outer arm fucose [29].
  • TNF-alpha increases the carbohydrate sulfation of CD44: induction of 6-sulfo N-acetyl lactosamine on N- and O-linked glycans [30].
  • Moreover, alpha1,3-Fut activity toward a polylactosamine chain in homogenates of brain tissues and primary cultured cells showed a pattern typical of Fut9, not Fut4 [31].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of polylactosamine


  1. Branching beta 1-6N-acetylglucosaminetransferases and polylactosamine expression in mouse F9 teratocarcinoma cells and differentiated counterparts. Heffernan, M., Lotan, R., Amos, B., Palcic, M., Takano, R., Dennis, J.W. J. Biol. Chem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  2. The Caenorhabditis elegans gene, gly-2, can rescue the N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase V mutation of Lec4 cells. Warren, C.E., Krizus, A., Roy, P.J., Culotti, J.G., Dennis, J.W. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. B-1 cell (CD5+B220+) outgrowth in murine schistosomiasis is genetically restricted and is largely due to activation by polylactosamine sugars. Velupillai, P., Secor, W.E., Horauf, A.M., Harn, D.A. J. Immunol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  4. Increase of beta 1-6-branched oligosaccharides in human esophageal carcinomas invasive against surrounding tissue in vivo and in vitro. Takano, R., Nose, M., Nishihira, T., Kyogoku, M. Am. J. Pathol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  5. Fucosylated type-2 chain polylactosamine antigens in human lung cancer. Zenita, K., Kirihata, Y., Kitahara, A., Shigeta, K., Higuchi, K., Hirashima, K., Murachi, T., Miyake, M., Takeda, T., Kannagi, R. Int. J. Cancer (1988) [Pubmed]
  6. Enzymatic remodelling of the carbohydrate surface of a xenogenic cell substantially reduces human antibody binding and complement-mediated cytolysis. Sandrin, M.S., Fodor, W.L., Mouhtouris, E., Osman, N., Cohney, S., Rollins, S.A., Guilmette, E.R., Setter, E., Squinto, S.P., McKenzie, I.F. Nat. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  7. Human keratinocytes express a new CD44 core protein (CD44E) as a heparan-sulfate intrinsic membrane proteoglycan with additional exons. Brown, T.A., Bouchard, T., St John, T., Wayner, E., Carter, W.G. J. Cell Biol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  8. Endogenous muscle lectin inhibits myoblast adhesion to laminin. Cooper, D.N., Massa, S.M., Barondes, S.H. J. Cell Biol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  9. Structural requirements for the carbohydrate ligand of E-selectin. Tyrrell, D., James, P., Rao, N., Foxall, C., Abbas, S., Dasgupta, F., Nashed, M., Hasegawa, A., Kiso, M., Asa, D. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1991) [Pubmed]
  10. Incomplete synthesis of N-glycans in congenital dyserythropoietic anemia type II caused by a defect in the gene encoding alpha-mannosidase II. Fukuda, M.N., Masri, K.A., Dell, A., Luzzatto, L., Moremen, K.W. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1990) [Pubmed]
  11. FAB-MS characterization of sialyl Lewis x determinants on polylactosamine chains of human airway mucins secreted by patients suffering from cystic fibrosis or chronic bronchitis. Morelle, W., Sutton-Smith, M., Morris, H.R., Davril, M., Roussel, P., Dell, A. Glycoconj. J. (2001) [Pubmed]
  12. Core tetrasaccharide liberated by endo-beta-D-N-acetylglucosaminidase D from lactosamine-type oligosaccharides of Semliki Forest virus membrane proteins. Pesonen, M., Haahtela, K., Renkonen, O. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1979) [Pubmed]
  13. Glycosylation-dependent collagen-binding activities of two membrane glycoproteins in MDAY-D2 tumor cells. Laferté, S., Dennis, J.W. Cancer Res. (1988) [Pubmed]
  14. The spectrum of incomplete N-linked oligosaccharides synthesized by endothelial cells in the presence of brefeldin A. Sampath, D., Varki, A., Freeze, H.H. J. Biol. Chem. (1992) [Pubmed]
  15. Linkage-specific action of endogenous sialic acid O-acetyltransferase in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Shi, W.X., Chammas, R., Varki, A. J. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  16. Stage-specific expression of three cell surface carbohydrate antigens during murine spermatogenesis detected with monoclonal antibodies. Fenderson, B.A., O'Brien, D.A., Millette, C.F., Eddy, E.M. Dev. Biol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  17. Molecular polymorphism of lumican during corneal development. Cornuet, P.K., Blochberger, T.C., Hassell, J.R. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1994) [Pubmed]
  18. Different metastatic phenotypes in two genetic classes of wheat germ agglutinin-resistant tumor cell mutants. Dennis, J.W. Cancer Res. (1986) [Pubmed]
  19. Stage-specific expression of cancer-associated type 1 and type 2 chain polylactosamine antigens in the developing pancreas of human embryos. Tuo, X.H., Itai, S., Nishikata, J., Mori, T., Tanaka, O., Kannagi, R. Cancer Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
  20. Concomitant increases in galectin-1 and its glycoconjugate ligands (carcinoembryonic antigen, lamp-1, and lamp-2) in cultured human colon carcinoma cells by sodium butyrate. Ohannesian, D.W., Lotan, D., Lotan, R. Cancer Res. (1994) [Pubmed]
  21. Regulation of secretion and surface expression of Mac-2, a galactoside-binding protein of macrophages. Sato, S., Hughes, R.C. J. Biol. Chem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  22. Synthesis of the branched form of erythroglycan by Friend GM979 erythroleukemic cells. Kaizu, T., Turco, S.J., Rush, J.S., Laine, R.A. J. Biol. Chem. (1982) [Pubmed]
  23. CD33/Siglec-3 binding specificity, expression pattern, and consequences of gene deletion in mice. Brinkman-Van der Linden, E.C., Angata, T., Reynolds, S.A., Powell, L.D., Hedrick, S.M., Varki, A. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  24. Molecular cloning of a cDNA encoding a novel human leukocyte alpha-1,3-fucosyltransferase capable of synthesizing the sialyl Lewis x determinant. Natsuka, S., Gersten, K.M., Zenita, K., Kannagi, R., Lowe, J.B. J. Biol. Chem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  25. Complementary acceptor and site specificities of Fuc-TIV and Fuc-TVII allow effective biosynthesis of sialyl-TriLex and related polylactosamines present on glycoprotein counterreceptors of selectins. Niemelä, R., Natunen, J., Majuri, M.L., Maaheimo, H., Helin, J., Lowe, J.B., Renkonen, O., Renkonen, R. J. Biol. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  26. Increased UDP-GlcNAc:Gal beta 1-3GaLNAc-R (GlcNAc to GaLNAc) beta-1, 6-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase activity in metastatic murine tumor cell lines. Control of polylactosamine synthesis. Yousefi, S., Higgins, E., Daoling, Z., Pollex-Krüger, A., Hindsgaul, O., Dennis, J.W. J. Biol. Chem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  27. Structure and bacterial receptor activity of a human salivary proline-rich glycoprotein. Gillece-Castro, B.L., Prakobphol, A., Burlingame, A.L., Leffler, H., Fisher, S.J. J. Biol. Chem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  28. Primary structure of CD52. Treumann, A., Lifely, M.R., Schneider, P., Ferguson, M.A. J. Biol. Chem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  29. Glycosylation of natural human neutrophil gelatinase B and neutrophil gelatinase B-associated lipocalin. Rudd, P.M., Mattu, T.S., Masure, S., Bratt, T., Van den Steen, P.E., Wormald, M.R., Küster, B., Harvey, D.J., Borregaard, N., Van Damme, J., Dwek, R.A., Opdenakker, G. Biochemistry (1999) [Pubmed]
  30. TNF-alpha increases the carbohydrate sulfation of CD44: induction of 6-sulfo N-acetyl lactosamine on N- and O-linked glycans. Delcommenne, M., Kannagi, R., Johnson, P. Glycobiology (2002) [Pubmed]
  31. Alpha1,3-fucosyltransferase IX (Fut9) determines Lewis X expression in brain. Nishihara, S., Iwasaki, H., Nakajima, K., Togayachi, A., Ikehara, Y., Kudo, T., Kushi, Y., Furuya, A., Shitara, K., Narimatsu, H. Glycobiology (2003) [Pubmed]
  32. Isolation and characterization of the two glycosylation isoforms of low molecular weight mannose 6-phosphate receptor from bovine testis. Effect of carbohydrate components on ligand binding. Li, M.M., Jourdian, G.W. J. Biol. Chem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  33. Monosaccharide and oligosaccharide analysis of proteins transferred to polyvinylidene fluoride membranes after sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Weitzhandler, M., Kadlecek, D., Avdalovic, N., Forte, J.G., Chow, D., Townsend, R.R. J. Biol. Chem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  34. Polylactosamine glycosylation on human fetal placental fibronectin weakens the binding affinity of fibronectin to gelatin. Zhu, B.C., Laine, R.A. J. Biol. Chem. (1985) [Pubmed]
  35. Molecular cloning of a novel alpha2,3-sialyltransferase (ST3Gal VI) that sialylates type II lactosamine structures on glycoproteins and glycolipids. Okajima, T., Fukumoto, S., Miyazaki, H., Ishida, H., Kiso, M., Furukawa, K., Urano, T., Furukawa, K. J. Biol. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  36. De novo induction of endothelial L-selectin ligands during kidney allograft rejection. Kirveskari, J., Paavonen, T., Häyry, P., Renkonen, R. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. (2000) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities