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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Role of fos and src in cadmium-induced decreases in bone mineral content in mice.

Cadmium decreases bone mineral in mice and stimulates osteoclast formation and activity in cell culture. Bones from fos-deficient mice contain very few osteoclasts; src-/- bones contain osteoclasts that fail to activate. Fos-/- and src-/- mice develop osteopetrotic bones and their teeth do not erupt. These mice were used to determine if cadmium requires c-Fos or c-Src and secondarily functional osteoclasts to decrease bone mineral content. Mice heterozygous for fos deficiency were mated to produce fos-/- and fos+/o (wild-type) offspring. Pups were divided into four groups: fos+/o, Cd-; fos+/o, Cd+; fos-/-, Cd-; and fos-/-, Cd+. Cd+ pups received daily sc injections (50 microg Cd/kg) on days 17-20 and Cd in drinking water thereafter (10 ppm, days 21-27; 20 ppm, days 27-50). An analogous protocol was followed mating mice heterozygous for src deficiency. For acute exposures, 50-day-old mice were placed on a low-calcium diet and given two sequential 100 microg Cd doses by gavage, and feces were monitored for excretion of bone calcium. Continuous exposure results demonstrate that cadmium (1) significantly decreased bone calcium content (14-15%) and concentration (12-13%) in both fos+/o and fos-/- mice, (2) doubled multinucleated osteoclast-like cell number in fos-/- bones, and (3) stimulated tooth eruption in 40% of fos-/- mice. Cd gavage stimulated bone calcium excretion in both fos+/o and fos-/- mice. In contrast, cadmium had no effect on bones or teeth in src-/- mice. Results indicate that cadmium can decrease bone mineral via a c-Fos-independent pathway; however, c-Src is required for cadmium to stimulate bone remodeling and tooth eruption pathways.[1]


  1. Role of fos and src in cadmium-induced decreases in bone mineral content in mice. Regunathan, A., Cerny, E.A., Villarreal, J., Bhattacharyya, M.H. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. (2002) [Pubmed]
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