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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Feces

  • In contrast to most isolates from normal feces and from the urine of patients with asymptomatic bacteriuria, pyelonephritis strains belong to a small number of O serogroups; all express the Gal--Gal binding adhesin and 75 per cent are hemolytic [1].
  • Total urinary nitrate excretion after infection and classical infection parameters, such as weight of the mesenteric lymph nodes and population levels of Salmonella in feces, were highly correlated [2].
  • However, the O2 infusion reduced the rat's excretion of CH4 (a metabolic product of anaerobic bacteria) to about 5% of the control value, although the feces of O2-treated rats produced CH4 normally [3].
  • Potential usefulness of detecting cyclooxygenase 2 messenger RNA in feces for colorectal cancer screening [4].
  • We conclude that ethanol ingestion can cause increased loss of plasma protein in the feces, which may be of clinical significance in subjects with atrophic gastritis [5].

Psychiatry related information on Feces

  • A single high i.v. dose of SCH 58500 (1.1 x 10(12) pfu/kg) was associated with lethargy, soft feces, a ruffled-hair coat, and death within 1 h postdose [6].

High impact information on Feces

  • Knowing the total daily excretion of total neutral and acidic steroids in feces in these patients, and assuming a total daily urinary steroid excretion 50 mg, we estimated that no more than 3.2% of total steroid excretion occurred via the skin [7].
  • Conversely, mice deficient in SR-BI had significantly increased [3H]cholesterol in the plasma but markedly reduced [3H] tracer excretion in the feces over 48 hours [8].
  • Cholesterol-loaded and [3H]cholesterol-labeled J774 macrophages were injected intraperitoneally into mice, after which the appearance of the [3H]cholesterol in the plasma, liver, and feces over 48 hours was quantitated [8].
  • Hydrogen consumption varied directly with PH2, and methanogenic feces consumed H2 far more rapidly than did nonmethanogenic feces [9].
  • Here we report on the enzyme-producing properties of five strains of mucin oligosaccharide chain-degrading bacteria isolated from feces of four healthy subjects [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Feces


Biological context of Feces


Anatomical context of Feces


Associations of Feces with chemical compounds

  • Cholesterol extraction predominated over release in the splanchnic vascular bed, suggesting that the excess of cholesterol excreted in the feces originated in extrasplanchnic tissues [26].
  • In the germfree groups fed cholic acid, 90% of the bile acids appeared unaltered in the feces [27].
  • The concentrations (mg/g dry feces) of fecal deoxycholic acid and total bile acids and the daily output of fecal deoxycholic acid, lithocholic acid, hyodeoxycholic acid, and total bile acids were increased in rats fed the corn bran diet as compared to the concentrations and daily output in rats fed the control diet [28].
  • When meat-fed animals were given L. acidophilus with 2-nitrofluorene or 2-naphthylamine-N-D-glucuronide, they had significantly lower free amines and higher concentrations of conjugates in their feces than did the meat-fed controls [29].
  • The results indicated that the higher tryptophanase activity in the feces of rats fed an all-meat diet is due to the inducibility of this enzyme by tryptophan and is not due to any inhibitor in the feces of rats on a normal diet [30].

Gene context of Feces

  • Purification and characterization of carcinoembryonic antigen-related antigens in normal adult feces [31].
  • Levels of the major cytochrome P450 3A4-mediated metabolites of docetaxel in feces were significantly increased after combination treatment with R101933 (P = 0.010), indicating very prominent and efficient detoxification of reabsorbed docetaxel into hydroxylated compounds before reaching the systemic circulation [32].
  • 3) The extracellular release of Lf was the most efficient and this molecule was the most stable in feces [33].
  • The surrogate markers ECP, EPX and MPO were measured in the supernatants from feces samples [34].
  • Here, we describe a method for the quantitative detection of mRNAs for select PKC isoforms isolated from rat feces containing exfoliated colonocytes [35].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Feces

  • Serial plasma, urine, and feces samples were obtained up to 500 hours after dosing and analyzed for irinotecan, metabolites (7-ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin [SN-38], SN-38 glucuronide [SN-38G], and APC), and ketoconazole by high-performance liquid chromatography [36].
  • Chloroform extraction and thin-layer chromatography in plasma, urine and feces suggested no qualitative alteration in the metabolism of digitoxin [37].
  • The effect of bile duct ligation on the quantitative and qualitative changes of bile acids in serum, liver, urine, and feces, and the concentration of cholesterol and phospholipids in serum and liver were examined in male rats [38].
  • The feasibility of this method for use in specific detection of probiotic strains was investigated through addition of Bifidobacterium sp. strain LW420 to infant instant milk formula (IMF) and PCR analyses of bacterial DNA isolated from feces of 17 newborn IMF-fed infants [39].
  • After treatment with BAL alone and BAL-DTPA, cadmium was excreted mainly in the feces with marked decrease in hepatic and renal concentrations of both cadmium and metallothionein [40].


  1. Gal-Gal binding and hemolysin phenotypes and genotypes associated with uropathogenic Escherichia coli. O'Hanley, P., Low, D., Romero, I., Lark, D., Vosti, K., Falkow, S., Schoolnik, G. N. Engl. J. Med. (1985) [Pubmed]
  2. Nitric oxide-derived urinary nitrate as a marker of intestinal bacterial translocation in rats. Oudenhoven, I.M., Klaasen, H.L., Lapré, J.A., Weerkamp, A.H., Van der Meer, R. Gastroenterology (1994) [Pubmed]
  3. Influence of high luminal PO2 on the anaerobic bacteria of the rat colon. Bond, J.H., Beggs, W.H., Levitt, M.D. Gastroenterology (1978) [Pubmed]
  4. Potential usefulness of detecting cyclooxygenase 2 messenger RNA in feces for colorectal cancer screening. Kanaoka, S., Yoshida, K., Miura, N., Sugimura, H., Kajimura, M. Gastroenterology (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. Gastrointestinal plasma protein loss during ethanol ingestion. Chowdhury, A.R., Malmud, L.S., Dinoso, V.P. Gastroenterology (1977) [Pubmed]
  6. Rodent nonclinical safety evaluation studies of SCH 58500, an adenoviral vector for the p53 gene. Morrissey, R.E., Horvath, C., Snyder, E.A., Patrick, J., MacDonald, J.S. Toxicol. Sci. (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. Isotope kinetics of human skin cholesterol secretion. Nikkari, T., Schreibman, P.H., Ahrens, E.H. J. Exp. Med. (1975) [Pubmed]
  8. Hepatic expression of scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) is a positive regulator of macrophage reverse cholesterol transport in vivo. Zhang, Y., Da Silva, J.R., Reilly, M., Billheimer, J.T., Rothblat, G.H., Rader, D.J. J. Clin. Invest. (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Factors affecting hydrogen production and consumption by human fecal flora. The critical roles of hydrogen tension and methanogenesis. Strocchi, A., Levitt, M.D. J. Clin. Invest. (1992) [Pubmed]
  10. Mucin degradation in human colon ecosystems. Isolation and properties of fecal strains that degrade ABH blood group antigens and oligosaccharides from mucin glycoproteins. Hoskins, L.C., Agustines, M., McKee, W.B., Boulding, E.T., Kriaris, M., Niedermeyer, G. J. Clin. Invest. (1985) [Pubmed]
  11. Bacterial metabolism of corticoids with particular reference to the 21-dehydroxylation. Winter, J., Bokkenheuser, V.D., Ponticorvo, L. J. Biol. Chem. (1979) [Pubmed]
  12. Adipsin, a biomarker of gastrointestinal toxicity mediated by a functional gamma-secretase inhibitor. Searfoss, G.H., Jordan, W.H., Calligaro, D.O., Galbreath, E.J., Schirtzinger, L.M., Berridge, B.R., Gao, H., Higgins, M.A., May, P.C., Ryan, T.P. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  13. Cephalosporin-associated colitis and Clostridium difficile. Donta, S.T., Lamps, G.M., Summers, R.W., Wilkins, T.D. Arch. Intern. Med. (1980) [Pubmed]
  14. Sulfate-reducing anaerobic bacteria in human feces. Beerens, H., Romond, C. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (1977) [Pubmed]
  15. Free radicals and the etiology of colon cancer. Babbs, C.F. Free Radic. Biol. Med. (1990) [Pubmed]
  16. Estimates of the chromium(VI) reducing capacity in human body compartments as a mechanism for attenuating its potential toxicity and carcinogenicity. De Flora, S., Camoirano, A., Bagnasco, M., Bennicelli, C., Corbett, G.E., Kerger, B.D. Carcinogenesis (1997) [Pubmed]
  17. Neither motility nor chemotaxis plays a role in the ability of Escherichia coli F-18 to colonize the streptomycin-treated mouse large intestine. McCormick, B.A., Laux, D.C., Cohen, P.S. Infect. Immun. (1990) [Pubmed]
  18. Internalization of Escherichia coli by human renal epithelial cells is associated with tyrosine phosphorylation of specific host cell proteins. Palmer, L.M., Reilly, T.J., Utsalo, S.J., Donnenberg, M.S. Infect. Immun. (1997) [Pubmed]
  19. Extracellular antigens from Salmonella enteritidis induce effective immune response in mice after oral vaccination. Strindelius, L., Degling Wikingsson, L., Sjöholm, I. Infect. Immun. (2002) [Pubmed]
  20. High dietary calcium level decreases colonic phytate degradation in pigs fed a rapeseed diet. Sandberg, A.S., Larsen, T., Sandström, B. J. Nutr. (1993) [Pubmed]
  21. Protoporphyrin hepatopathy. Effects of cholic acid ingestion in murine griseofulvin-induced protoporphyria. Poh-Fitzpatrick, M.B., Sklar, J.A., Goldsman, C., Lefkowitch, J.H. J. Clin. Invest. (1983) [Pubmed]
  22. The site-specific delivery of ursodeoxycholic acid to the rat colon by sulfate conjugation. Rodrigues, C.M., Kren, B.T., Steer, C.J., Setchell, K.D. Gastroenterology (1995) [Pubmed]
  23. Ursodeoxycholic acid and cholesterol induce enterohepatic cycling of bilirubin in rodents. Méndez-Sánchez, N., Brink, M.A., Paigen, B., Carey, M.C. Gastroenterology (1998) [Pubmed]
  24. Asymptomatic rectal mucosal lesions and hepatitis B surface antigen at sites of sexual contact in homosexual men with persistent hepatitis B virus infection. Reiner, N.E., Judson, F.N., Bond, W.W., Francis, D.P., Petersen, N.J. Ann. Intern. Med. (1982) [Pubmed]
  25. The effects of additional flora on the response of salmonella mutants lodged in the gastrointestinal tract. Wheeler, L.A., Carter, J.H., Ingelfinger, J.A., Soderberg, F.B., Goldman, P. Cancer Res. (1977) [Pubmed]
  26. Effects of chronic ethanol intake on mobilization and excretion of cholesterol in baboons. Karsenty, C., Baraona, E., Savolainen, M.J., Lieber, C.S. J. Clin. Invest. (1985) [Pubmed]
  27. Acute effects of dietary cholic acid and methylazoxymethanol acetate on colon epithelial cell proliferation; metabolism of bile salts and neutral sterols in conventional and germfree SD rats. Weidema, W.F., Deschner, E.E., Cohen, B.I., DeCosse, J.J. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1985) [Pubmed]
  28. Effect of dietary corn bran and autohydrolyzed lignin on 3,2'-dimethyl-4-aminobiphenyl-induced intestinal carcinogenesis in male F344 rats. Reddy, B.S., Maeura, Y., Wayman, M. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1983) [Pubmed]
  29. Alterations of the intestinal microflora by diet, oral antibiotics, and Lactobacillus: decreased production of free amines from aromatic nitro compounds, azo dyes, and glucuronides. Goldin, B.R., Gorbach, S.L. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1984) [Pubmed]
  30. Tryptophanase of fecal flora as a possible factor in the etiology of colon cancer. Chung, K.T., Fulk, G.E., Slein, M.W. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1975) [Pubmed]
  31. Purification and characterization of carcinoembryonic antigen-related antigens in normal adult feces. Kuroki, M., Koga, Y., Matsuoka, Y. Cancer Res. (1981) [Pubmed]
  32. Role of intestinal P-glycoprotein in the plasma and fecal disposition of docetaxel in humans. van Zuylen, L., Verweij, J., Nooter, K., Brouwer, E., Stoter, G., Sparreboom, A. Clin. Cancer Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  33. Fecal lactoferrin as a marker for disease activity in inflammatory bowel disease: comparison with other neutrophil-derived proteins. Sugi, K., Saitoh, O., Hirata, I., Katsu, K. Am. J. Gastroenterol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  34. A kinetic study in adults with food hypersensitivity assessed as eosinophil activation in fecal samples. Magnusson, J., Gellerstedt, M., Ahlstedt, S., Andersson, B., Bengtsson, U., Telemo, E., Hansson, T., Peterson, C.G. Clin. Exp. Allergy (2003) [Pubmed]
  35. Noninvasive detection of putative biomarkers for colon cancer using fecal messenger RNA. Davidson, L.A., Jiang, Y.H., Lupton, J.R., Chapkin, R.S. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. (1995) [Pubmed]
  36. Modulation of irinotecan metabolism by ketoconazole. Kehrer, D.F., Mathijssen, R.H., Verweij, J., de Bruijn, P., Sparreboom, A. J. Clin. Oncol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  37. Disposition of digitoxin in renal failure. Vöhringer, H.F., Rietbrock, N., Spurny, P., Kuhlmann, J., Hampl, H., Baethke, R. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (1976) [Pubmed]
  38. Effect of bile duct ligation on bile acid metabolism in rats. Kinugasa, T., Uchida, K., Kadowaki, M., Takase, H., Nomura, Y., Saito, Y. J. Lipid Res. (1981) [Pubmed]
  39. Specific detection and analysis of a probiotic Bifidobacterium strain in infant feces. Kok, R.G., de Waal, A., Schut, F., Welling, G.W., Weenk, G., Hellingwerf, K.J. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  40. Chelation of cadmium from metallothionein in vivo and its excretion in rats repeatedly injected with cadmium chloride. Cherian, M.G., Rodgers, K. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (1982) [Pubmed]
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