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MeSH Review

Bone Density

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Disease relevance of Bone Density


Psychiatry related information on Bone Density


High impact information on Bone Density


Chemical compound and disease context of Bone Density


Biological context of Bone Density


Anatomical context of Bone Density


Associations of Bone Density with chemical compounds

  • Effect of estrogen therapy on bone density in elderly women [30].
  • CONCLUSIONS: Alendronate increases bone density in patients receiving glucocorticoid therapy [25].
  • We conclude that long-term steroid therapy in asthmatic patients is associated with decreased trabecular bone density and an increased prevalence of rib and vertebral fractures [31].
  • For example, at 24 months, the mean (+/-SE) difference in the change in bone mineral density between the women receiving 60 mg of raloxifene per day and those receiving placebo was 2.4+/-0.4 percent for the lumbar spine, 2.4+/-0.4 percent for the total hip, and 2.0+/-0.4 percent for the total body (P<0.001 for all comparisons) [32].
  • We conclude that fluoride therapy increases cancellous but decreases cortical bone mineral density and increases skeletal fragility [33].

Gene context of Bone Density

  • Elevated parathyroid hormone-related peptide associated with lactation and bone density loss [34].
  • These results indicate that, despite the different diagnoses that can be made, conditions with an increased bone density affecting mainly the cortices of the long bones and the skull are often caused by mutations in the LRP5 gene [35].
  • We studied whether the sclerosteosis/van Buchem disease gene (SOST) is an osteoporosis-risk gene by examining its association with bone-mineral density (BMD) [36].
  • We have identified a fifth TRAIL receptor, namely osteoprotegerin (OPG), a secreted tumor necrosis factor receptor homologue that inhibits osteoclastogenesis and increases bone density in vivo [37].
  • OG2 Phex transgenic Hyp mice did exhibit a small, but significant, increase in bone mineral density and dry ashed weight, suggesting a partial mineralization effect from restoration of Phex function in mature osteoblasts [38].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Bone Density


  1. Cyclic administration of pamidronate in children with severe osteogenesis imperfecta. Glorieux, F.H., Bishop, N.J., Plotkin, H., Chabot, G., Lanoue, G., Travers, R. N. Engl. J. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  2. Effect of oral alendronate on bone mineral density and the incidence of fractures in postmenopausal osteoporosis. The Alendronate Phase III Osteoporosis Treatment Study Group. Liberman, U.A., Weiss, S.R., Bröll, J., Minne, H.W., Quan, H., Bell, N.H., Rodriguez-Portales, J., Downs, R.W., Dequeker, J., Favus, M. N. Engl. J. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  3. Sex differences in osteoporosis in older adults with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Barrett-Connor, E., Holbrook, T.L. JAMA (1992) [Pubmed]
  4. Oral clodronate and reduction in loss of bone mineral density in women with operable primary breast cancer. Powles, T.J., McCloskey, E., Paterson, A.H., Ashley, S., Tidy, V.A., Nevantaus, A., Rosenqvist, K., Kanis, J. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1998) [Pubmed]
  5. Effect of glucocorticoid replacement therapy on bone mineral density in patients with Addison disease. Zelissen, P.M., Croughs, R.J., van Rijk, P.P., Raymakers, J.A. Ann. Intern. Med. (1994) [Pubmed]
  6. The effect of postmenopausal estrogen therapy on bone density in elderly women. Felson, D.T., Zhang, Y., Hannan, M.T., Kiel, D.P., Wilson, P.W., Anderson, J.J. N. Engl. J. Med. (1993) [Pubmed]
  7. Effects of risedronate on bone density in anorexia nervosa. Miller, K.K., Grieco, K.A., Mulder, J., Grinspoon, S., Mickley, D., Yehezkel, R., Herzog, D.B., Klibanski, A. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. Dietary patterns, eating behaviors, and bone mineral density in women runners. Snead, D.B., Stubbs, C.C., Weltman, J.Y., Evans, W.S., Veldhuis, J.D., Rogol, A.D., Teates, C.D., Weltman, A. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (1992) [Pubmed]
  9. Effects of psychiatric disorders and psychotropic medications on prolactin and bone metabolism. Misra, M., Papakostas, G.I., Klibanski, A. The Journal of clinical psychiatry. (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. The cellular and clinical parameters of anabolic therapy for osteoporosis. Rosen, C.J. Crit. Rev. Eukaryot. Gene Expr. (2003) [Pubmed]
  11. Aromatase inhibitors as adjuvant therapy for postmenopausal patients with early stage breast cancer. Kudachadkar, R., O'Regan, R.M. CA: a cancer journal for clinicians. (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. Integrating genotypic and expression data in a segregating mouse population to identify 5-lipoxygenase as a susceptibility gene for obesity and bone traits. Mehrabian, M., Allayee, H., Stockton, J., Lum, P.Y., Drake, T.A., Castellani, L.W., Suh, M., Armour, C., Edwards, S., Lamb, J., Lusis, A.J., Schadt, E.E. Nat. Genet. (2005) [Pubmed]
  13. Bone morphogenetic protein-3 is a negative regulator of bone density. Daluiski, A., Engstrand, T., Bahamonde, M.E., Gamer, L.W., Agius, E., Stevenson, S.L., Cox, K., Rosen, V., Lyons, K.M. Nat. Genet. (2001) [Pubmed]
  14. Effect of parathyroid hormone (1-34) on fractures and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Neer, R.M., Arnaud, C.D., Zanchetta, J.R., Prince, R., Gaich, G.A., Reginster, J.Y., Hodsman, A.B., Eriksen, E.F., Ish-Shalom, S., Genant, H.K., Wang, O., Mitlak, B.H. N. Engl. J. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  15. Pamidronate to prevent bone loss during androgen-deprivation therapy for prostate cancer. Smith, M.R., McGovern, F.J., Zietman, A.L., Fallon, M.A., Hayden, D.L., Schoenfeld, D.A., Kantoff, P.W., Finkelstein, J.S. N. Engl. J. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  16. Increased incidence of diagnosed depressive illness in hypogonadal older men. Shores, M.M., Sloan, K.L., Matsumoto, A.M., Moceri, V.M., Felker, B., Kivlahan, D.R. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (2004) [Pubmed]
  17. Warfarin use and risk for osteoporosis in elderly women. Study of Osteoporotic Fractures Research Group. Jamal, S.A., Browner, W.S., Bauer, D.C., Cummings, S.R. Ann. Intern. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  18. Metabolic bone disease in alcoholic cirrhosis: a comparison of the effect of vitamin D2, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, or supportive treatment. Mobarhan, S.A., Russell, R.M., Recker, R.R., Posner, D.B., Iber, F.L., Miller, P. Hepatology (1984) [Pubmed]
  19. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists and fracture risk: a claims-based cohort study of men with nonmetastatic prostate cancer. Smith, M.R., Lee, W.C., Brandman, J., Wang, Q., Botteman, M., Pashos, C.L. J. Clin. Oncol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  20. Bone disease in chronic childhood cholestasis. I. Vitamin D absorption and metabolism. Heubi, J.E., Hollis, B.W., Specker, B., Tsang, R.C. Hepatology (1989) [Pubmed]
  21. Mice lacking the vitamin D receptor exhibit impaired bone formation, uterine hypoplasia and growth retardation after weaning. Yoshizawa, T., Handa, Y., Uematsu, Y., Takeda, S., Sekine, K., Yoshihara, Y., Kawakami, T., Arioka, K., Sato, H., Uchiyama, Y., Masushige, S., Fukamizu, A., Matsumoto, T., Kato, S. Nat. Genet. (1997) [Pubmed]
  22. Reduced bone density and osteoporosis associated with a polymorphic Sp1 binding site in the collagen type I alpha 1 gene. Grant, S.F., Reid, D.M., Blake, G., Herd, R., Fogelman, I., Ralston, S.H. Nat. Genet. (1996) [Pubmed]
  23. The effect of calcium supplementation on bone density during lactation and after weaning. Kalkwarf, H.J., Specker, B.L., Bianchi, D.C., Ranz, J., Ho, M. N. Engl. J. Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  24. Body weight and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women with primary hyperparathyroidism. Grey, A.B., Evans, M.C., Stapleton, J.P., Reid, I.R. Ann. Intern. Med. (1994) [Pubmed]
  25. Alendronate for the prevention and treatment of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. Glucocorticoid-Induced Osteoporosis Intervention Study Group. Saag, K.G., Emkey, R., Schnitzer, T.J., Brown, J.P., Hawkins, F., Goemaere, S., Thamsborg, G., Liberman, U.A., Delmas, P.D., Malice, M.P., Czachur, M., Daifotis, A.G. N. Engl. J. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  26. Endocrine and intracrine sources of androgens in women: inhibition of breast cancer and other roles of androgens and their precursor dehydroepiandrosterone. Labrie, F., Luu-The, V., Labrie, C., Bélanger, A., Simard, J., Lin, S.X., Pelletier, G. Endocr. Rev. (2003) [Pubmed]
  27. Raloxifene (LY139481 HCI) prevents bone loss and reduces serum cholesterol without causing uterine hypertrophy in ovariectomized rats. Black, L.J., Sato, M., Rowley, E.R., Magee, D.E., Bekele, A., Williams, D.C., Cullinan, G.J., Bendele, R., Kauffman, R.F., Bensch, W.R. J. Clin. Invest. (1994) [Pubmed]
  28. Vertebral size in elderly women with osteoporosis. Mechanical implications and relationship to fractures. Gilsanz, V., Loro, M.L., Roe, T.F., Sayre, J., Gilsanz, R., Schulz, E.E. J. Clin. Invest. (1995) [Pubmed]
  29. Linkage of decreased bone mass with impaired osteoblastogenesis in a murine model of accelerated senescence. Jilka, R.L., Weinstein, R.S., Takahashi, K., Parfitt, A.M., Manolagas, S.C. J. Clin. Invest. (1996) [Pubmed]
  30. Effect of estrogen therapy on bone density in elderly women. Kanis, J.A., Stevenson, J.C. N. Engl. J. Med. (1994) [Pubmed]
  31. Steroid-induced fractures and bone loss in patients with asthma. Adinoff, A.D., Hollister, J.R. N. Engl. J. Med. (1983) [Pubmed]
  32. Effects of raloxifene on bone mineral density, serum cholesterol concentrations, and uterine endometrium in postmenopausal women. Delmas, P.D., Bjarnason, N.H., Mitlak, B.H., Ravoux, A.C., Shah, A.S., Huster, W.J., Draper, M., Christiansen, C. N. Engl. J. Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  33. Effect of fluoride treatment on the fracture rate in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Riggs, B.L., Hodgson, S.F., O'Fallon, W.M., Chao, E.Y., Wahner, H.W., Muhs, J.M., Cedel, S.L., Melton, L.J. N. Engl. J. Med. (1990) [Pubmed]
  34. Elevated parathyroid hormone-related peptide associated with lactation and bone density loss. Sowers, M.F., Hollis, B.W., Shapiro, B., Randolph, J., Janney, C.A., Zhang, D., Schork, A., Crutchfield, M., Stanczyk, F., Russell-Aulet, M. JAMA (1996) [Pubmed]
  35. Six novel missense mutations in the LDL receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5) gene in different conditions with an increased bone density. Van Wesenbeeck, L., Cleiren, E., Gram, J., Beals, R.K., Bénichou, O., Scopelliti, D., Key, L., Renton, T., Bartels, C., Gong, Y., Warman, M.L., De Vernejoul, M.C., Bollerslev, J., Van Hul, W. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (2003) [Pubmed]
  36. Polymorphisms in the sclerosteosis/van Buchem disease gene (SOST) region are associated with bone-mineral density in elderly whites. Uitterlinden, A.G., Arp, P.P., Paeper, B.W., Charmley, P., Proll, S., Rivadeneira, F., Fang, Y., van Meurs, J.B., Britschgi, T.B., Latham, J.A., Schatzman, R.C., Pols, H.A., Brunkow, M.E. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (2004) [Pubmed]
  37. Osteoprotegerin is a receptor for the cytotoxic ligand TRAIL. Emery, J.G., McDonnell, P., Burke, M.B., Deen, K.C., Lyn, S., Silverman, C., Dul, E., Appelbaum, E.R., Eichman, C., DiPrinzio, R., Dodds, R.A., James, I.E., Rosenberg, M., Lee, J.C., Young, P.R. J. Biol. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  38. Overexpression of Phex in osteoblasts fails to rescue the Hyp mouse phenotype. Liu, S., Guo, R., Tu, Q., Quarles, L.D. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  39. A 10-year prospective study of primary hyperparathyroidism with or without parathyroid surgery. Silverberg, S.J., Shane, E., Jacobs, T.P., Siris, E., Bilezikian, J.P. N. Engl. J. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  40. Antiresorptive treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis: comparison of study designs and outcomes in large clinical trials with fracture as an endpoint. Marcus, R., Wong, M., Heath, H., Stock, J.L. Endocr. Rev. (2002) [Pubmed]
  41. Postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy: scientific review. Nelson, H.D., Humphrey, L.L., Nygren, P., Teutsch, S.M., Allan, J.D. JAMA (2002) [Pubmed]
  42. Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist decreases bone loss and bone resorption in ovariectomized rats. Kimble, R.B., Vannice, J.L., Bloedow, D.C., Thompson, R.C., Hopfer, W., Kung, V.T., Brownfield, C., Pacifici, R. J. Clin. Invest. (1994) [Pubmed]
  43. Effect of hormone replacement therapy on bone mineral density in postmenopausal women with mild primary hyperparathyroidism. A randomized, controlled trial. Grey, A.B., Stapleton, J.P., Evans, M.C., Tatnell, M.A., Reid, I.R. Ann. Intern. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
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