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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Msx1 is a regulator of bone formation during development and postnatal growth: in vivo investigations in a transgenic mouse model.

The present study is devoted to Msx1 distribution and function from birth to 15 months, events and periods still unexplored in vivo using Msx1 knock in transgenic mice. The study is focused on the mandible, as an exemplary model system for Msx1-dependent neural crest-derived skeletal unit. The transgenic line enabled study of morphological abnormalities in Msx1 null mutation mice and Msx1 protein expression in Msx1+/- heterozygous mice. In Msx1 null mutation, the most striking feature was an inhibition of the mandibular basal convexity, the absence of teeth and alveolar bone processes, and absence of endochondral ossification in the mandibular condyle. At birth, in Msx1+/- heterozygous animals, we identified for the first time a double Msx1 aboral-oral and disto-proximal gradient field developmental pattern located in the low border of the mandibular bone in relation with this bone segment modeling. Msx1 expression involved both osteoblast and osteoclast cells. A distinct pattern characterized bone surfaces: Periosteum osteoblast differentiation was related to Msx1 down-regulation, while in the endosteum both differentiated osteoblasts and osteoclasts expressed the homeoprotein. In postnatal stages, Msx1 expression was maintained in the alveolar bone processes and dento-alveolar cells in relation with tooth function. Our data suggest that Msx1 play a role in a site-specific manner not only in early patterning but also in skeletal growth and modeling by acting on heterogenous bone cell populations.[1]


  1. Msx1 is a regulator of bone formation during development and postnatal growth: in vivo investigations in a transgenic mouse model. Orestes-Cardoso, S., Nefussi, J.R., Lezot, F., Oboeuf, M., Pereira, M., Mesbah, M., Robert, B., Berdal, A. Connect. Tissue Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
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