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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and the risk of secondary myeloid malignancy after etoposide treatment.

Event-free survival for children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) now exceeds 80% in the most effective trials. Failures are due to relapse, toxicity, and second cancers such as therapy-related myeloid leukemia or myelodysplasia (t-ML). Topoisomerase II inhibitors and alkylators can induce t-ML; additional risk factors for t-ML remain poorly defined. The occurrence of t-ML among children who had received granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) following ALL remission induction therapy prompted us to examine this and other putative risk factors for t-ML in 412 children treated on 2 consecutive ALL protocols from 1991 to 1998. All children received etoposide and anthracyclines, 99 of whom received G-CSF; 284 also received cyclophosphamide, 58 of whom also received cranial irradiation. There were 20 children who developed t-ML at a median of 2.3 years (range, 1.0-6.0 years), including 16 cases of acute myeloid leukemia, 3 myelodysplasia, and 1 chronic myeloid leukemia. Stratifying by protocol, the cumulative incidence functions differed (P =.017) according to the use of G-CSF and irradiation: 6-year cumulative incidence (standard error) of t-ML of 12.3% (5.3%) among the 44 children who received irradiation without G-CSF, 11.0% (3.5%) among the 85 children who received G-CSF but no irradiation, 7.1% (7.2%) among the 14 children who received irradiation plus G-CSF, and 2.7% (1.3%) among the 269 children who received neither irradiation nor G-CSF. Even when children receiving irradiation were excluded, the incidence was still higher in those receiving G-CSF (P =.019). In the setting of intensive antileukemic therapy, short-term use of G-CSF may increase the risk of t-ML.[1]


  1. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and the risk of secondary myeloid malignancy after etoposide treatment. Relling, M.V., Boyett, J.M., Blanco, J.G., Raimondi, S., Behm, F.G., Sandlund, J.T., Rivera, G.K., Kun, L.E., Evans, W.E., Pui, C.H. Blood (2003) [Pubmed]
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