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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Involvement of cysteine proteinases in excystment of Paragonimus ohirai metacercariae induced by sodium cholate and A23187.

The involvement of intrinsic proteinases in the excystment of Paragonimus ohirai metacercariae was studied in in vitro excystment induced by sodium (Na) cholate, a bile salt and A23187, a Ca2+ ionophore. The effects of various proteinase inhibitors on the in vitro excystment were examined and similar inhibitory profiles were obtained. Benzyloxycarbonyl-L-leucyl-L-leucinal (Z-Leu-Leu-H), a cysteine proteinase inhibitor and 4-(2-aminoethyl)-benzenesulfonyl fluoride (Pefabloc SC), a serine proteinase inhibitor completely inhibited excystment, while L-3-carboxy-2,3-trans-epoxypropionyl-leucylamido (4-guanidino)-butane (E-64), a cysteine proteinase inhibitor and leupeptin, a cysteine/serine proteinase inhibitor permitted partial excystment at a lower rate, but inhibited it from proceeding from the partial excystment stage. In secretions released from metacercariae during excystment, proteinase activities detected towards various fluorogenic peptidyl substrates were almost completely inhibited by Z-Leu-Leu-H and E-64, but not by Pefabloc SC. Sodium cholate induced a higher secretion of cysteine proteinases and a higher rate of excystment than A23187. Profiles of cysteine proteinase activities towards five peptidyl substrates detected were markedly different among the two secretions and the lysate of newly excysted juveniles. Newly excysted juveniles released cysteine proteinases with similar activity profiles and levels to metacercariae induced by Na cholate-incubation, whereas the release of cysteine proteinases was reduced compared with metacercariae induced by A23187-incubation. These results provide valuable information about the involvement of intrinsic proteinases in metacercarial excystment.[1]


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