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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Mechanisms by which nutritional disorders cause reduced bone mass in adults.

Nutritional disorders that cause bone loss in adults include disordered eating behaviors (female athlete triad and anorexia nervosa), gastrointestinal diseases (celiac sprue, inflammatory bowel disease, and other malabsorption syndromes), alcoholism, and hypervitaminosis A. These disorders exert their effects on bone through a number of mechanisms, including estrogen deficiency. Deficiencies of anabolic hormones may also be important, including insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), a nutritionally regulated bone trophic factor. In addition, low weight itself is a risk factor for bone loss and decreased bone formation. Reduced calcium and vitamin D availability, with resultant secondary hyperparathyroidism, is another important mechanism of bone loss in nutritional disorders. This review discusses nutritional causes of reduced bone mass in adults and how nutritional disorders exert deleterious effects on the skeleton.[1]


  1. Mechanisms by which nutritional disorders cause reduced bone mass in adults. Miller, K.K. Journal of women's health (2002) (2003) [Pubmed]
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