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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

The influence of conserved aromatic residues in 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase.

In order to evaluate the potential contribution of conserved aromatic residues to the hydrophobic active site of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase, site-directed mutagenesis was employed to produce Y130L, Y163L, F204L, Y225L, Y346L, and Y376L proteins. Each mutant protein was expressed at levels comparable with wild-type enzyme and was isolated in highly purified form. Initial kinetic characterization indicated that F204L exhibits a substantial (>300-fold) decrease in catalytic rate (kcat). Upon modification with the mechanism-based inhibitor, 3-chloropropionyl-CoA, or in formation of a stable binary complex with acetoacetyl-CoA, F204L exhibits binding stoichiometries comparable with wild-type enzyme, suggesting substantial retention of active site integrity. Y130L and Y376L exhibit inflated values (80- and 40-fold, respectively) for the Km for acetyl-CoA in the acetyl-CoA hydrolysis partial reaction; these mutants also exhibit an order of magnitude decrease in kcat. Formation of the acetyl-S-enzyme reaction intermediate by Y130L, F204L, and Y376L proceeds slowly in comparison with wild-type enzyme. However, solvent exchange into the thioester carbonyl oxygen of these acetyl-S-enzyme intermediates is not slow in comparison with previous observations for D159A and D203A mutants, which also exhibit slow acetyl-S-enzyme formation. The magnitude of the differential isotope shift upon exchange of H218O into [13C]acetyl-S-enzyme suggests a polarization of the thioester carbonyl and a reduction in bond order. Such an effect may substantially contribute to the upfield 13C NMR shift observed for [13C]acetyl-S-enzyme. The influence on acetyl-S-enzyme formation, as well as observed kcat (F204L) and Km (Y130L; Y376L) effects, implicate these invariant residues as part of the catalytic site. Substitution of phenylalanine (Y130F, Y376F) instead of leucine at residues 130 and 376 diminishes the effects on catalytic rate and substrate affinity observed for Y130L and Y376L, underscoring the influence of aromatic side chains near the active site.[1]


  1. The influence of conserved aromatic residues in 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase. Misra, I., Wang, C.Z., Miziorko, H.M. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
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