The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
Chemical Compound Review

FT-0686822     [(2R,3S,4R,5R)-5-(6- aminopurin-9-yl)-2...

Synonyms: AC1L1M86, 72-89-9, EINECS 200-790-9, S-Acetylcoenzyme A, Coenzyme A, S-acetate
Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of acetyl-CoA


Psychiatry related information on acetyl-CoA


High impact information on acetyl-CoA


Chemical compound and disease context of acetyl-CoA

  • Pyruvate formate-lyase (acetyl-CoA:formate C-acetyltransferase, EC from anaerobic Escherichia coli cells converts pyruvate to acetyl-CoA and formate by a unique homolytic mechanism that involves a free radical harbored in the protein structure [12].
  • Mucopolysaccharidosis IIIC (MPS IIIC, or Sanfilippo C syndrome) is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by the inherited deficiency of the lysosomal membrane enzyme acetyl-coenzyme A: alpha -glucosaminide N-acetyltransferase (N-acetyltransferase), which leads to impaired degradation of heparan sulfate [13].
  • In Escherichia coli, acetyl phosphate can be formed from acetyl-CoA via the phosphotransacetylase (phosphate acetyltransferase; acetyl-CoA:orthophosphate acetyltransferase, EC reaction and from acetate (plus ATP) via the acetate kinase (ATP:acetate phosphotransferase, EC reaction [14].
  • In this study, inhibition of FA synthesis at the physiologically regulated step of carboxylation of acetyl-CoA to malonyl-CoA by 5-(tetradecyloxy)-2-furoic acid (TOFA) was not cytotoxic to breast cancer cells in clonogenic assays [15].
  • In contrast to E. coli PanK (bPanK), which is regulated by CoA and to a lesser extent by its thioesters, aPanK activity was selectively and potently inhibited by acetyl-CoA [16].

Biological context of acetyl-CoA


Anatomical context of acetyl-CoA


Associations of acetyl-CoA with other chemical compounds

  • Malonyl-CoA, generated by acetyl-CoA carboxylases 1 and 2 (Acc1 and Acc2), is a key regulator of both mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and fat synthesis [21].
  • The first involves peroxisomal conversion of acetyl-CoA into glyoxylate cycle intermediates followed by transport of these intermediates to the mitochondria [24].
  • Using a selective screen, we have isolated several mutants that are specifically affected in the second pathway, the carnitine-dependent acetyl-CoA transport from the peroxisomes to the mitochondria, and assigned these CDAT mutants to three different complementation groups [24].
  • The facB gene is required for acetate induction of acetamidase (amdS) and the acetate utilization enzymes acetyl-CoA synthase (facA), isocitrate lyase (acuD) and malate synthase (acuE) in Aspergillus nidulans [25].
  • To elucidate the mechanism of betaA-induced neuronal death, we searched for substrates of TPKI/GSK-3beta in a two-hybrid system and identified pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH), which converts pyruvate to acetyl-CoA in mitochondria [26].

Gene context of acetyl-CoA

  • We report that mutants with conditional defects in the rate-limiting enzyme of fatty acid synthesis, acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC1), display unusually multilobed vacuoles, similar to those observed in vac8 mutant cells [27].
  • Inhibition of acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase activity restores expression of the INO1 gene in a snf1 mutant strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae [28].
  • We identified mutations in ACC1 and FAS1, two genes important for fatty acid biosynthesis in yeast; ACC1 encodes acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase (Acc1), and FAS1 encodes the beta subunit of fatty acid synthase [28].
  • Furthermore, we demonstrate that STAGA has acetyl coenzyme A-dependent transcriptional coactivator functions from a chromatin-assembled template in vitro and associates in HeLa cells with spliceosome-associated protein 130 (SAP130) and DDB1, two structurally related proteins [29].
  • Taken together, these inhibition patterns support an ordered BiBi kinetic mechanism for PCAF in which acetyl-CoA binding precedes H3-20 binding [30].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of acetyl-CoA

  • Recovery of cardiac work, O2 consumption (MVO2), and rates of acetyl-coenzyme A and ATP production during reperfusion were determined [31].
  • Electrophoretic mobility shift assays and DNase I footprinting revealed that acetyl-CoA increased the affinity of the general transcription factor TFIID for promoter DNA in a TBP-associated factor (TAF)-dependent manner [32].
  • The assay was based on the separation and detection of N-[(3)H]acetylarylethylamine formed from various arylethylamines and tritiated acetyl-CoA, by means of high performance liquid chromatography with radiochemical detection [33].
  • However, conditions of perfusion that increased acetyl-CoA supply resulted in higher turnover and concentration, demonstrating that malonyl-CoA turnover is regulated by the supply of acetyl-CoA [34].
  • No flavin semiquinone was observed during potentiometric titrations; however, low amounts of the radical were observed when Isf was quickly frozen after reaction with CO and the CO dehydrogenase/acetyl-CoA synthase complex from M. thermophila [35].


  1. A methylnickel intermediate in a bimetallic mechanism of acetyl-coenzyme A synthesis by anaerobic bacteria. Kumar, M., Qiu, D., Spiro, T.G., Ragsdale, S.W. Science (1995) [Pubmed]
  2. Relationship between unusual hepatic acyl coenzyme A profiles and the pathogenesis of Reye syndrome. Corkey, B.E., Hale, D.E., Glennon, M.C., Kelley, R.I., Coates, P.M., Kilpatrick, L., Stanley, C.A. J. Clin. Invest. (1988) [Pubmed]
  3. Molecular cloning of a 10-deacetylbaccatin III-10-O-acetyl transferase cDNA from Taxus and functional expression in Escherichia coli. Walker, K., Croteau, R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2000) [Pubmed]
  4. Active acetyl-CoA synthase from Clostridium thermoaceticum obtained by cloning and heterologous expression of acsAB in Escherichia coli. Loke, H.K., Bennett, G.N., Lindahl, P.A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2000) [Pubmed]
  5. Targeting of the polyhydroxybutyrate biosynthetic pathway to the plastids of Arabidopsis thaliana results in high levels of polymer accumulation. Nawrath, C., Poirier, Y., Somerville, C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1994) [Pubmed]
  6. Cortical substance P-like immunoreactivity in cases of Alzheimer's disease and senile dementia of the Alzheimer type. Crystal, H.A., Davies, P. J. Neurochem. (1982) [Pubmed]
  7. Circadian Regulator CLOCK Is a Histone Acetyltransferase. Doi, M., Hirayama, J., Sassone-Corsi, P. Cell (2006) [Pubmed]
  8. Structure and ligand of a histone acetyltransferase bromodomain. Dhalluin, C., Carlson, J.E., Zeng, L., He, C., Aggarwal, A.K., Zhou, M.M. Nature (1999) [Pubmed]
  9. Genetic evidence for transmembrane acetylation by lysosomes. Bame, K.J., Rome, L.H. Science (1986) [Pubmed]
  10. Acetylcholine synthesis in synaptosomes: mode of transfer of mitochondrial acetyl coenzyme A. Benjamin, A.M., Quastel, J.H. Science (1981) [Pubmed]
  11. Gene activation by histone and factor acetyltransferases. Berger, S.L. Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  12. The free radical in pyruvate formate-lyase is located on glycine-734. Wagner, A.F., Frey, M., Neugebauer, F.A., Schäfer, W., Knappe, J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1992) [Pubmed]
  13. Mutations in TMEM76 Cause Mucopolysaccharidosis IIIC (Sanfilippo C Syndrome). Hrebicek, M., Mrazova, L., Seyrantepe, V., Durand, S., Roslin, N.M., Noskova, L., Hartmannova, H., Ivanek, R., Cizkova, A., Poupetova, H., Sikora, J., Urinovska, J., Stranecky, V., Zeman, J., Lepage, P., Roquis, D., Verner, A., Ausseil, J., Beesley, C.E., Maire, I., Poorthuis, B.J., van de Kamp, J., van Diggelen, O.P., Wevers, R.A., Hudson, T.J., Fujiwara, T.M., Majewski, J., Morgan, K., Kmoch, S., Pshezhetsky, A.V. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. Requirements of acetyl phosphate for the binding protein-dependent transport systems in Escherichia coli. Hong, J.S., Hunt, A.G., Masters, P.S., Lieberman, M.A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1979) [Pubmed]
  15. Malonyl-coenzyme-A is a potential mediator of cytotoxicity induced by fatty-acid synthase inhibition in human breast cancer cells and xenografts. Pizer, E.S., Thupari, J., Han, W.F., Pinn, M.L., Chrest, F.J., Frehywot, G.L., Townsend, C.A., Kuhajda, F.P. Cancer Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  16. Cloning and characterization of a eukaryotic pantothenate kinase gene (panK) from Aspergillus nidulans. Calder, R.B., Williams, R.S., Ramaswamy, G., Rock, C.O., Campbell, E., Unkles, S.E., Kinghorn, J.R., Jackowski, S. J. Biol. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  17. The yeast SAS (something about silencing) protein complex contains a MYST-type putative acetyltransferase and functions with chromatin assembly factor ASF1. Osada, S., Sutton, A., Muster, N., Brown, C.E., Yates, J.R., Sternglanz, R., Workman, J.L. Genes Dev. (2001) [Pubmed]
  18. Nucleocytosolic acetyl-coenzyme a synthetase is required for histone acetylation and global transcription. Takahashi, H., McCaffery, J.M., Irizarry, R.A., Boeke, J.D. Mol. Cell (2006) [Pubmed]
  19. GCN5-related N-acetyltransferases: a structural overview. Dyda, F., Klein, D.C., Hickman, A.B. Annual review of biophysics and biomolecular structure. (2000) [Pubmed]
  20. Endocannabinoid activation at hepatic CB1 receptors stimulates fatty acid synthesis and contributes to diet-induced obesity. Osei-Hyiaman, D., DePetrillo, M., Pacher, P., Liu, J., Radaeva, S., Bátkai, S., Harvey-White, J., Mackie, K., Offertáler, L., Wang, L., Kunos, G. J. Clin. Invest. (2005) [Pubmed]
  21. Reversal of diet-induced hepatic steatosis and hepatic insulin resistance by antisense oligonucleotide inhibitors of acetyl-CoA carboxylases 1 and 2. Savage, D.B., Choi, C.S., Samuel, V.T., Liu, Z.X., Zhang, D., Wang, A., Zhang, X.M., Cline, G.W., Yu, X.X., Geisler, J.G., Bhanot, S., Monia, B.P., Shulman, G.I. J. Clin. Invest. (2006) [Pubmed]
  22. Relationship between the coenzyme A and the carnitine pools in human skeletal muscle at rest and after exhaustive exercise under normoxic and acutely hypoxic conditions. Friolet, R., Hoppeler, H., Krähenbühl, S. J. Clin. Invest. (1994) [Pubmed]
  23. Effects of amino acids on substrate selection, anaplerosis, and left ventricular function in the ischemic reperfused rat heart. Jessen, M.E., Kovarik, T.E., Jeffrey, F.M., Sherry, A.D., Storey, C.J., Chao, R.Y., Ring, W.S., Malloy, C.R. J. Clin. Invest. (1993) [Pubmed]
  24. Molecular characterization of carnitine-dependent transport of acetyl-CoA from peroxisomes to mitochondria in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and identification of a plasma membrane carnitine transporter, Agp2p. van Roermund, C.W., Hettema, E.H., van den Berg, M., Tabak, H.F., Wanders, R.J. EMBO J. (1999) [Pubmed]
  25. FacB, the Aspergillus nidulans activator of acetate utilization genes, binds dissimilar DNA sequences. Todd, R.B., Andrianopoulos, A., Davis, M.A., Hynes, M.J. EMBO J. (1998) [Pubmed]
  26. Regulation of mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase activity by tau protein kinase I/glycogen synthase kinase 3beta in brain. Hoshi, M., Takashima, A., Noguchi, K., Murayama, M., Sato, M., Kondo, S., Saitoh, Y., Ishiguro, K., Hoshino, T., Imahori, K. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1996) [Pubmed]
  27. A novel cold-sensitive allele of the rate-limiting enzyme of fatty acid synthesis, acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase, affects the morphology of the yeast vacuole through acylation of Vac8p. Schneiter, R., Guerra, C.E., Lampl, M., Tatzer, V., Zellnig, G., Klein, H.L., Kohlwein, S.D. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  28. Inhibition of acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase activity restores expression of the INO1 gene in a snf1 mutant strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Shirra, M.K., Patton-Vogt, J., Ulrich, A., Liuta-Tehlivets, O., Kohlwein, S.D., Henry, S.A., Arndt, K.M. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  29. Human STAGA complex is a chromatin-acetylating transcription coactivator that interacts with pre-mRNA splicing and DNA damage-binding factors in vivo. Martinez, E., Palhan, V.B., Tjernberg, A., Lymar, E.S., Gamper, A.M., Kundu, T.K., Chait, B.T., Roeder, R.G. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  30. p300/CBP-associated factor histone acetyltransferase processing of a peptide substrate. Kinetic analysis of the catalytic mechanism. Lau, O.D., Courtney, A.D., Vassilev, A., Marzilli, L.A., Cotter, R.J., Nakatani, Y., Cole, P.A. J. Biol. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  31. Cardiac efficiency is improved after ischemia by altering both the source and fate of protons. Liu, B., Clanachan, A.S., Schulz, R., Lopaschuk, G.D. Circ. Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
  32. Acetyl coenzyme A stimulates RNA polymerase II transcription and promoter binding by transcription factor IID in the absence of histones. Galasinski, S.K., Lively, T.N., Grebe De Barron, A., Goodrich, J.A. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  33. Substrate specificity and inhibition studies of human serotonin N-acetyltransferase. Ferry, G., Loynel, A., Kucharczyk, N., Bertin, S., Rodriguez, M., Delagrange, P., Galizzi, J.P., Jacoby, E., Volland, J.P., Lesieur, D., Renard, P., Canet, E., Fauchère, J.L., Boutin, J.A. J. Biol. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  34. Regulation of malonyl-CoA concentration and turnover in the normal heart. Reszko, A.E., Kasumov, T., David, F., Thomas, K.R., Jobbins, K.A., Cheng, J.F., Lopaschuk, G.D., Dyck, J.R., Diaz, M., Des Rosiers, C., Stanley, W.C., Brunengraber, H. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  35. Electrochemical and spectroscopic properties of the iron-sulfur flavoprotein from Methanosarcina thermophila. Becker, D.F., Leartsakulpanich, U., Surerus, K.K., Ferry, J.G., Ragsdale, S.W. J. Biol. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities