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Advances in the development of visual prostheses.

Visual prostheses are based on neuronal electrical stimulation at different locations along the visual pathway (ie, cortical, optic nerve, epiretinal, subretinal). In terms of retinal prostheses, advances in microtechnology have allowed for the development of sophisticated, high-density integrated circuit devices that may be implanted either in the subretinal or epiretinal space. Analogous to the cochlear implants for some forms of deafness, these devices could restore useful vision by converting visual information into patterns of electrical stimulation that would excite the remaining spared inner retinal neurons in patients with diseases such as retinitis pigmentosa and age-related macular degeneration. The different types of implants and recent results are discussed, but special emphasis is given to retinal implants.[1]


  1. Advances in the development of visual prostheses. Lakhanpal, R.R., Yanai, D., Weiland, J.D., Fujii, G.Y., Caffey, S., Greenberg, R.J., de Juan, E., Humayun, M.S. Current opinion in ophthalmology. (2003) [Pubmed]
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