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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Adaptation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, mediated by Msn2p- and Msn4p-regulated genes: important role of SPI1.

The possible roles of 13 Msn2p- and Msn4p-regulated genes in the adaptation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to the herbicide 2,4-D-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) were examined. Single deletion of genes involved in defense against oxidizing agents (CTT1, GRX1, and GRX2/TTR1) or encoding chaperones of the HSP70 family (SSA1, SSA4, and SSE2) showed a slight effect. A more significant role was observed for the heat shock genes HSP78, HSP26, HSP104, HSP12, and HSP42, most of which encode molecular chaperones. However, the SPI1 gene, encoding a member of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored cell wall protein family, emerged as the major determinant of 2,4-D resistance. SPI1 expression reduced the loss of viability of an unadapted yeast population suddenly exposed to the herbicide, allowing earlier growth resumption. Significantly, yeast adaptation to 2,4-D involves the rapid and transient Msn2p- and Msn4p- mediated activation (fivefold) of SPI1 transcription. SPI1 mRNA levels were reduced to values slightly above those in unstressed cells when the adapted population started duplication in the presence of 2,4-D. Since SPI1 deletion leads to the higher beta-1,3-glucanase sensitivity of 2,4-D-stressed cells, it was hypothesized that adaptation may involve an Spi1p-mediated increase in the diffusional restriction of the liposoluble acid form of the herbicide across the cell envelope. Such a cell response would avoid a futile cycle due to acid reentry into the cell counteracting the active export of the anionic form, presumably through an inducible plasma membrane transporter(s). Consistent with this concept, the concentration of (14)C-labeled 2,4-D in 2,4-D-energized adapted Deltaspi1 mutant cells and the consequent intracellular acidification are higher than in wild-type cells.[1]


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