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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

CD40-mediated up-regulation of Toll-like receptor 4-MD2 complex on the surface of murine dendritic cells.

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns, which are non-self macromolecular components of pathogens that allow the innate-immune system to recognize infection. TLRs are expressed on macrophages and dendritic cells (DC). TLR stimulation or CD40 agonists can induce inflammatory cytokine secretion from macrophages and DC, and promote DC maturation. The regulation of TLR expression by inflammation has begun to be explored. Our studies have focused on the regulation of TLR4 surface expression on DC. TLR4, along with the adaptor molecule MD2, is involved in the recognition of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). CD40 stimulation via cross-linked anti-CD40 monoclonal antibody (mAb) up-regulates TLR4-MD2 surface expression on a DC cell line (DC2.4) and on ex vivo-cultured splenic DC. LPS treatment down-regulated surface TLR4-MD2 on DC2.4 cells, but if combined with anti-CD40 mAb, increased TLR4-MD2 expression was observed. The increased TLR4-MD2 surface expression by any treatment did not correlate with TLR4 mRNA levels. The functional consequence of increased TLR4-MD2 expression following LPS and anti-CD40 treatment was examined. Although CD40 prestimulation did slightly enhance interleukin-12p70 secretion after LPS restimulation, simultaneous anti-CD40 mAb and LPS treatment, which up-regulates TLR4-MD2 complex, does not restore DC responsiveness to subsequent LPS.[1]


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