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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Phosphorylation by casein kinase II alters the biological activity of calmodulin.

Calmodulin is the major intracellular Ca(2+)-binding protein, providing Ca(2+)-dependent regulation of numerous intracellular enzymes. The phosphorylation of calmodulin may provide an additional mechanism for modulating its function as a signal transducer. Phosphocalmodulin has been identified in tissues and cells, and calmodulin is phosphorylated both in vitro and in intact cells by various enzymes. Phosphorylation of calmodulin on serine/threonine residues by casein kinase II decreases its ability to activate both myosin-light-chain kinase and cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase. For myosin-light-chain kinase the primary effect is an inhibition of the Vmax. of the reaction, with no apparent change in the concentration at which half-maximal velocity is attained (K0.5) for either Ca2+ or calmodulin. In contrast, for phosphodiesterase, phosphorylation of calmodulin significantly increases the K0.5 for calmodulin without noticeably altering the Vmax. or the K0.5 for Ca2+. The higher the stoichiometry of phosphorylation of calmodulin, the greater the inhibition of calmodulin-stimulated activity for both enzymes. Therefore the phosphorylation of calmodulin by casein kinase II appears to provide a Ca(2+)-independent mechanism whereby calmodulin regulates at least two important target enzymes, myosin-light-chain kinase and cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase.[1]


  1. Phosphorylation by casein kinase II alters the biological activity of calmodulin. Sacks, D.B., Davis, H.W., Williams, J.P., Sheehan, E.L., Garcia, J.G., McDonald, J.M. Biochem. J. (1992) [Pubmed]
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