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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Sequential activation of MAP kinase activator, MAP kinases, and S6 peptide kinase in intact rat liver following insulin injection.

An insulin-stimulated phosphorylation cascade was examined in rat liver after insulin injection via a portal vein by the use of immune complex kinase assays specific to the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase and S6 kinase II homologue (rsk) kinase. We have prepared an antibody against the peptide consisting of a carboxyl-terminal portion of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 (alpha C92), one of the MAP kinases, and an antibody against the peptide consisting of the carboxyl terminus of the mouse S6 kinase II homologue (alpha rsk(m)C). In alpha C92 immune complex assay, maximal activation of rat liver MAP kinases (approximately 4.3-fold) were observed 4.5 min after insulin injection. We also observed an insulin-stimulated MAP kinase activity (approximately 3-fold) in liver extracts from insulin-treated rat in fractions eluted from phenyl-Sepharose with 30-50% ethylene glycol. Kinase assay in myelin basic protein (MBP)-containing gel after sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by denaturation with 6 M guanidine HCl, and renaturation revealed that insulin injection stimulated the kinase activity of the 42- and 44-kDa proteins, which corresponded to the two distinct MAP kinases. In alpha rsk(m)C immune complex assay, maximal stimulation (approximately 5-fold) of the S6 peptide (Arg-Arg-Leu-Ser-Ser-Leu-Arg-Ala) kinase activity was observed 7.5 min after insulin injection. In addition, MAP kinases purified from insulin-treated rat liver were able to activate S6 peptide kinase activity in vitro in alpha rsk(m)C immunoprecipitates from untreated rat liver, accompanied by the appearance of several phosphorylated bands including a major band at 88 kDa. We also examined whether insulin injection stimulates the MAP kinase activator (Ahn, N. G., Seger, R., Bratlien, R. L., Diltz, C. D., Tonks, N. K., and Krebs, E. G. (1991) J. Biol. Chem. 266, 4220-4227) in rat liver. Using recombinant Xenopus MAP kinase, fractions of Q-Sepharose eluted early in the NaCl gradient were found to have MAP kinase activator activity accompanied by the phosphorylation of 42-kDa recombinant Xenopus MAP kinase. From these data, we demonstrate three tiers of a cascade composed of the MAP kinase activator, MAP kinases, and an S6 peptide kinase activity in rat liver under physiological conditions in the intact animal.[1]


  1. Sequential activation of MAP kinase activator, MAP kinases, and S6 peptide kinase in intact rat liver following insulin injection. Tobe, K., Kadowaki, T., Hara, K., Gotoh, Y., Kosako, H., Matsuda, S., Tamemoto, H., Ueki, K., Akanuma, Y., Nishida, E. J. Biol. Chem. (1992) [Pubmed]
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