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Chemical Compound Review

Macrogol     ethane-1,2-diol

Synonyms: Carbowax 400, Carbowax 600, PEG 3350, 1,2-ethanediol, ETHYLENE GLYCOL, ...
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Disease relevance of ethylene glycol


Psychiatry related information on ethylene glycol


High impact information on ethylene glycol


Chemical compound and disease context of ethylene glycol


Biological context of ethylene glycol

  • After recovery, gastric emptying was assessed in the fasted conscious dogs using 300-ml gastric instillates of 25% dextrose marked with [14C]polyethylene glycol, while pulse, hematocrit, and defecation were monitored [20].
  • Plasma 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethylene glycol (MHPG) and plasma cortisol levels, anxiety-related symptoms on clinician- and subject-rated scales, blood pressure, and heart rate were measured throughout each test day [21].
  • Quercetin inhibited Ca2+-dependent ATP hydrolysis, ATP-dependent Ca2+ uptake, chelator-induced [ethylene glycol bis(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid] Ca2+ release, and ATP synthesis coupled to Ca2+ release in isolated vesicles of sarcoplasmic reticulum [22].
  • This perturbation of DNA structure should increase the likelihood of a guanine.thymine glycol wobble base pair during replication, which would explain the mutational specificity of the base observed in the genetic experiments [23].
  • Epitope-specific suppression of antibody response in experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis by a monomethoxypolyethylene glycol conjugate of a myasthenogenic synthetic peptide [24].

Anatomical context of ethylene glycol

  • Both chromium mesoporphyrin IX and zinc protoporphyrin IX inhibited nitric oxide synthase in the hippocampus; tin mesoporphyrin IX and zinc deuteroporphyrin IX bis glycol neither reduced LTP induction nor inhibited NOS activity, although they did inhibit heme oxygenase [25].
  • Sections of glycol methacrylate-embedded follicles injected with India ink revealed multiple fine capillaries in germinal centers not detected by previous techniques [26].
  • Intestinal handling of water and electrolytes was monitored in 5 conscious dogs with chronic 25-cm Thiry-Vella loops of proximal jejunum using a neutral isosmotic perfusate containing [14C]polyethylene glycol as a recovery marker [27].
  • The gallbladder was perfused with [14C]polyethylene glycol labeled lactated Ringer's solution at 0.03 ml/min and vent effluent was collected at 2.5-min intervals [28].
  • [14C]polyethylene glycol (molecular weight, 3350 daltons; 1.1 microCi/142 mg) was instilled into the distal duodenum [29].

Associations of ethylene glycol with other chemical compounds

  • The isoosmolar test solution (200 ml, 100 mM HC1, 54 mM mannitol, [14C]polyethylene glycol) was instilled into the stomach and removed 15 min later for four 15-min periods [30].
  • Morphometric analysis of Leydig cells in mature normal rats was carried out on tissue fixed by perfusion with buffered glutaraldehyde, and embedded in glycol methacrylate for light microscopy and in Epon for electron microscopy [31].
  • In the present study, we investigated the impact of the oxidative lesions 8-oxoguanine, thymine glycol and 5-hydroxyuracil on RNA polymerase II (RNA pol II) transcription using a well-defined in vitro transcription system [32].
  • After lysis in a Brij 58-polyethylene glycol medium, PtK1 cells are permeable to small molecules, such as erythrosin B, and to proteins, such as rhodamine-labeled FAB, myosin subfragment-1, and tubulin [33].
  • Preliminary data show that the apparent affinity constant of the cGMP-dependent Ca-binding sites of the disc membranes is of the same (or even higher) order of magnitude as that of ethylene glycol bis(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid [34].

Gene context of ethylene glycol

  • PMN stimulated with TNF or FMLP adhered and formed zones of close apposition to fibrin, as measured by the exclusion of a 10-kD rhodamine-polyethylene glycol probe from the contact zones between PMN and the underlying fibrin gel [14].
  • Furthermore, the protective effect of CuZnSOD at the DNA level, as shown by reduced thymine glycol generation, was demonstrated in paraquat-treated transgenic fibroblasts [35].
  • Human endonuclease III (hNTH1), a DNA glycosylase with associated abasic lyase activity, repairs various mutagenic and toxic-oxidized DNA lesions, including thymine glycol [36].
  • The binding protein was not detectable by poly(ethylene glycol) precipitation; instead, bound and free 125I-labelled human growth hormone (hGH; a potent lactogen) was separated using a mini-gel filtration technique [37].
  • Experiments performed on oligonucleotides containing a variety of oxidative base damages indicated that dihydrothymine, urea, and uracil glycol are substrates for Ntg1p and Ntg2p, although dihydrothymine was a poor substrate for Ntg2p [38].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of ethylene glycol

  • A nonantigenic covalent streptokinase-polyethylene glycol complex with plasminogen activator function [39].
  • The efficacy and safety of the new colonic lavage solution, Golytely (an electrolyte-polyethylene glycol solution), was compared with standard 2- and 3-day bowel preparations in a randomized blinded study of patients undergoing colonoscopy and barium enema examination [40].
  • The covalent immobilization is specific for cutinase, and the glycol-terminated monolayer effectively prevents unwanted nonspecific adsorption of proteins [41].
  • Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy showed that cutinase binds irreversibly to a monolayer presenting the capture ligand at a density of 1% mixed among tri(ethylene glycol) groups [41].
  • These studies indicate that, in an animal model, Fluosol-DA, due to its detergent component Pluronic F-68, impaired neutrophil delivery to an inflammatory locus, and resulted in an increased rate of infection mortality [42].


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  14. Fibrin regulates neutrophil migration in response to interleukin 8, leukotriene B4, tumor necrosis factor, and formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine. Loike, J.D., el Khoury, J., Cao, L., Richards, C.P., Rascoff, H., Mandeville, J.T., Maxfield, F.R., Silverstein, S.C. J. Exp. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  15. Thymine glycol and thymidine glycol in human and rat urine: a possible assay for oxidative DNA damage. Cathcart, R., Schwiers, E., Saul, R.L., Ames, B.N. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1984) [Pubmed]
  16. Alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase-deficient mice, a model for primary hyperoxaluria that responds to adenoviral gene transfer. Salido, E.C., Li, X.M., Lu, Y., Wang, X., Santana, A., Roy-Chowdhury, N., Torres, A., Shapiro, L.J., Roy-Chowdhury, J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2006) [Pubmed]
  17. Legionella pneumophila type II secretome reveals unique exoproteins and a chitinase that promotes bacterial persistence in the lung. Debroy, S., Dao, J., S??derberg, M., Rossier, O., Cianciotto, N.P. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2006) [Pubmed]
  18. Ligand-induced Conformational Changes in the Capping Subdomain of a Bacterial Old Yellow Enzyme Homologue and Conserved Sequence Fingerprints Provide New Insights into Substrate Binding. van den Hemel, D., Brigé, A., Savvides, S.N., Van Beeumen, J. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  19. The beta subunit of tryptophan synthase. Clarification of the roles of histidine 86, lysine 87, arginine 148, cysteine 170, and cysteine 230. Miles, E.W., Kawasaki, H., Ahmed, S.A., Morita, H., Morita, H., Nagata, S. J. Biol. Chem. (1989) [Pubmed]
  20. Intestinal pacing for canine postgastrectomy dumping. Becker, J.M., Sava, P., Kelly, K.A., Shturman, L. Gastroenterology (1983) [Pubmed]
  21. Noradrenergic dysregulation during discontinuation of cocaine use in addicts. McDougle, C.J., Black, J.E., Malison, R.T., Zimmermann, R.C., Kosten, T.R., Heninger, G.R., Price, L.H. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (1994) [Pubmed]
  22. Quercetin inhibits Ca2+ uptake but not Ca2+ release by sarcoplasmic reticulum in skinned muscle fibers. Shoshan, V., Campbell, K.P., MacLennan, D.H., Frodis, W., Britt, B.A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1980) [Pubmed]
  23. Genetic effects of thymine glycol: site-specific mutagenesis and molecular modeling studies. Basu, A.K., Loechler, E.L., Leadon, S.A., Essigmann, J.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1989) [Pubmed]
  24. Epitope-specific suppression of antibody response in experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis by a monomethoxypolyethylene glycol conjugate of a myasthenogenic synthetic peptide. Atassi, M.Z., Ruan, K.H., Jinnai, K., Oshima, M., Ashizawa, T. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1992) [Pubmed]
  25. Inhibition of hippocampal heme oxygenase, nitric oxide synthase, and long-term potentiation by metalloporphyrins. Meffert, M.K., Haley, J.E., Schuman, E.M., Schulman, H., Madison, D.V. Neuron (1994) [Pubmed]
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  27. Verapamil reversal of serotonin-induced jejunal secretion of water and electrolytes in awake dogs. Zinner, M.J., McFadden, D., Sherlock, D., Jaffe, B.M. Gastroenterology (1986) [Pubmed]
  28. Pancreatic polypeptide enhances postcontractile gallbladder filling in the prairie dog. Conter, R.L., Roslyn, J.J., DenBesten, L., Taylor, I.L. Gastroenterology (1987) [Pubmed]
  29. Gut macromolecular permeability in pancreatitis correlates with severity of disease in rats. Ryan, C.M., Schmidt, J., Lewandrowski, K., Compton, C.C., Rattner, D.W., Warshaw, A.L., Tompkins, R.G. Gastroenterology (1993) [Pubmed]
  30. Protective effect of acetaminophen against aspirin- and ethanol-induced damage to the human gastric mucosa. Stern, A.I., Hogan, D.L., Kahn, L.H., Isenberg, J.I. Gastroenterology (1984) [Pubmed]
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  32. RNA polymerase II bypass of oxidative DNA damage is regulated by transcription elongation factors. Charlet-Berguerand, N., Feuerhahn, S., Kong, S.E., Ziserman, H., Conaway, J.W., Conaway, R., Egly, J.M. EMBO J. (2006) [Pubmed]
  33. A permeabilized cell model for studying cell division: a comparison of anaphase chromosome movement and cleavage furrow constriction in lysed PtK1 cells. Cande, W.Z., McDonald, K., Meeusen, R.L. J. Cell Biol. (1981) [Pubmed]
  34. Cyclic GMP releases calcium from disc membranes of vertebrate photoreceptors. Cavaggioni, A., Sorbi, R.T. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1981) [Pubmed]
  35. Relationship of resistance to oxygen free radicals to CuZn-superoxide dismutase activity in transgenic, transfected, and trisomic cells. Huang, T.T., Carlson, E.J., Leadon, S.A., Epstein, C.J. FASEB J. (1992) [Pubmed]
  36. In vitro and in vivo dimerization of human endonuclease III stimulates its activity. Liu, X., Choudhury, S., Roy, R. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
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  39. A nonantigenic covalent streptokinase-polyethylene glycol complex with plasminogen activator function. Rajagopalan, S., Gonias, S.L., Pizzo, S.V. J. Clin. Invest. (1985) [Pubmed]
  40. A randomized blinded clinical trial of a rapid colonic lavage solution (Golytely) compared with standard preparation for colonoscopy and barium enema. Ernstoff, J.J., Howard, D.A., Marshall, J.B., Jumshyd, A., McCullough, A.J. Gastroenterology (1983) [Pubmed]
  41. Selective immobilization of proteins to self-assembled monolayers presenting active site-directed capture ligands. Hodneland, C.D., Lee, Y.S., Min, D.H., Mrksich, M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2002) [Pubmed]
  42. Increased infection mortality and decreased neutrophil migration due to a component of an artificial blood substitute. Lane, T.A., Lamkin, G.E. Blood (1986) [Pubmed]
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