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MeSH Review

Portal Vein

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Disease relevance of Portal Vein

  • METHODS: VX-2 rabbit carcinoma cells were maintained by serial transplantation in the thigh muscles of New Zealand White rabbits, and disseminated liver metastases were established by direct injection of tumor cells into the portal vein of the animals [1].
  • Ketoacid infusion caused hypokalemia and a significant increase in portal vein plasma insulin, from the basal level of 27 +/- 4 microU/ml to a maximum of 84 +/- 22 microU/ml at 10 min, without changes in glucagon levels [2].
  • Multiple recurrences of HCC and portal vein tumor thrombus were observed significantly more often in patients with positive AFP-L3 than in those with negative AFP-L3 status (P < 0.0001) [3].
  • Two other cases involved asymptomatic cysts in the presence of cirrhosis, portal vein thrombosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma [4].
  • BACKGROUND & AIMS: In rats with portal vein stenosis, the initial cause of aortic nitric oxide (NO) overproduction might be overactivation of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) related to increased shear stress [5].

Psychiatry related information on Portal Vein


High impact information on Portal Vein

  • A puncture needle is advanced in a catheter through the inferior vena cava into a hepatic vein; then an intrahepatic branch of the portal vein is punctured and an expandable stent of metallic mesh is implanted to establish the shunt [7].
  • The antibodies also reduced the increase in hepatic vein blood glucose that occurred during meals in control rats, but did not affect the prandial increase in portal vein blood glucose [8].
  • High activin/TGFbeta signaling is required near the portal vein for differentiation of biliary cells [9].
  • Somatostatin and portal vein infusions of insulin and glucagon were used to clamp the pancreatic hormones at basal levels in the nondiabetic dog [10].
  • In conclusion, small changes in portal vein concentrations of insulin and glucagon independently affect hepatic glycogen synthesis and turnover [11].

Chemical compound and disease context of Portal Vein


Biological context of Portal Vein

  • Upon initiation of ethanol infusion into the portal vein at concentrations ranging from 25 to 100 mM, portal pressure began to increase in a concentration-dependent manner and reached maximal levels in 2-5 min (initial phase), followed by a gradual decrease over the period of ethanol infusion (escape phenomenon) [17].
  • In the ex vivo models, bucillamine treatment significantly improved portal vein blood flow and bile production, preserved normal liver architecture, and significantly reduced liver enzyme release and indices of oxidative stress [18].
  • Two to three weeks after the transfection, glutamic-pyruvic transaminase levels were elevated in serum, hepatocyte death and lymphocyte infiltration were observed in the vicinity of the portal vein of liver, and HBV virions were no longer detected in the serum [19].
  • The kinetics of expression after injection of vector particles into muscle, tail vein, or portal vein were similar with hFIX detectable at 2 weeks and reaching a plateau by 8 weeks [20].
  • Polymerase chain reaction analysis demonstrated predominant localization of the rAAV FIX genome in liver and spleen after tail vein injection with a higher proportion in liver after portal vein injection [20].

Anatomical context of Portal Vein


Associations of Portal Vein with chemical compounds

  • This study using sampling of blood from the portal vein, in addition to arterial and hepatic sites, to estimate separately spillovers of norepinephrine from mesenteric organs and the liver in seven patients undergoing upper abdominal surgery [26].
  • Evidence supporting gastric metabolism of ethanol largely derives from the lower AUCs observed after oral than after intravenous administration; however, we observed increasingly higher AUCs with increasingly rapid portal vein infusions of identical ethanol doses [27].
  • The 13C-enrichments of portal vein lactate and alanine were 14 and 14%, respectively, in the high-dose group and 11 and 8%, respectively, in the low-dose group [28].
  • Propranolol significantly decreased portal vein insulin, portal flow, and increased hepatic glucose production and plasma glucose [29].
  • Streptozotocin-induced, diabetic mice (C57BL/6) were preimmunized by injecting 25 low temperature, cultured Wistar-Furth (WF) rat islets into the portal vein, and the recipients received one injection of mouse and rat antilymphocyte sera [30].

Gene context of Portal Vein

  • In control liver perfused in situ with constant pressure, infusion of ET-1 into the portal vein at a concentration of 0.1 nmol/L decreased the flow rate without a significant leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) or aspartate transaminase (AST) into the effluent [31].
  • Furthermore, a high Ang-2/1 mRNA ratio in HCC was closely associated with tumor portal vein invasion, tumor diameter, and the microvessel density level as assessed by CD34 immunostaining [32].
  • As a nontraumatic alternative, we show that exogenous hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is a powerful and safe mitogen for the mature intact murine liver when delivered continuously into the portal vein [33].
  • We investigated the effects of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) produced by Kupffer cells on ICAM-1 expression after ischemia-reperfusion in rat liver by occluding the portal vein for 30 minutes [34].
  • Slightly reduced expression of MBD2 was detected in HCCs, and the expression of MeCP2 was particularly reduced in HCCs with portal vein involvement [35].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Portal Vein


  1. Tumor-specific gene delivery using recombinant vaccinia virus in a rabbit model of liver metastases. Gnant, M.F., Noll, L.A., Irvine, K.R., Puhlmann, M., Terrill, R.E., Alexander, H.R., Bartlett, D.L. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1999) [Pubmed]
  2. Role of the endocrine pancreas in the kalemic response to acute metabolic acidosis in conscious dogs. Adrogué, H.J., Chap, Z., Ishida, T., Field, J.B. J. Clin. Invest. (1985) [Pubmed]
  3. Prognostic significance of Lens culinaris agglutinin A-reactive alpha-fetoprotein in small hepatocellular carcinomas. Yamashita, F., Tanaka, M., Satomura, S., Tanikawa, K. Gastroenterology (1996) [Pubmed]
  4. Hepatic cysts of periductal gland origin presenting as obstructive jaundice. Wanless, I.R., Zahradnik, J., Heathcote, E.J. Gastroenterology (1987) [Pubmed]
  5. Role of shear stress in aortic eNOS up-regulation in rats with biliary cirrhosis. Tazi, K.A., Barrière, E., Moreau, R., Heller, J., Sogni, P., Pateron, D., Poirel, O., Lebrec, D. Gastroenterology (2002) [Pubmed]
  6. Reduced feeding during water deprivation depends on hydration of the gut. Schoorlemmer, G.H., Evered, M.D. Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. The transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic stent-shunt procedure for variceal bleeding. Rössle, M., Haag, K., Ochs, A., Sellinger, M., Nöldge, G., Perarnau, J.M., Berger, E., Blum, U., Gabelmann, A., Hauenstein, K. N. Engl. J. Med. (1994) [Pubmed]
  8. Stimulation of feeding in rats by intraperitoneal injection of antibodies to glucagon. Langhans, W., Zeiger, U., Scharrer, E., Geary, N. Science (1982) [Pubmed]
  9. Control of liver cell fate decision by a gradient of TGF beta signaling modulated by Onecut transcription factors. Clotman, F., Jacquemin, P., Plumb-Rudewiez, N., Pierreux, C.E., Van der Smissen, P., Dietz, H.C., Courtoy, P.J., Rousseau, G.G., Lemaigre, F.P. Genes Dev. (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. Insulin's direct effects on the liver dominate the control of hepatic glucose production. Edgerton, D.S., Lautz, M., Scott, M., Everett, C.A., Stettler, K.M., Neal, D.W., Chu, C.A., Cherrington, A.D. J. Clin. Invest. (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. The roles of insulin and glucagon in the regulation of hepatic glycogen synthesis and turnover in humans. Roden, M., Perseghin, G., Petersen, K.F., Hwang, J.H., Cline, G.W., Gerow, K., Rothman, D.L., Shulman, G.I. J. Clin. Invest. (1996) [Pubmed]
  12. DNA markers predicting benefit from adjuvant fluorouracil in patients with colon cancer: a molecular study. Barratt, P.L., Seymour, M.T., Stenning, S.P., Georgiades, I., Walker, C., Birbeck, K., Quirke, P. Lancet (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. Blockade of type beta transforming growth factor signaling prevents liver fibrosis and dysfunction in the rat. Qi, Z., Atsuchi, N., Ooshima, A., Takeshita, A., Ueno, H. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1999) [Pubmed]
  14. Desensitization of myocardial beta-adrenergic receptors in cirrhotic rats. Lee, S.S., Marty, J., Mantz, J., Samain, E., Braillon, A., Lebrec, D. Hepatology (1990) [Pubmed]
  15. Lack of vasopressin action on splanchnic hemodynamics during bleeding: a study in conscious, portal hypertensive rats. Valla, D., Girod, C., Lee, S.S., Braillon, A., Lebrec, D. Hepatology (1988) [Pubmed]
  16. The relationship between prostacyclin activity and pressure in the portal vein. Hamilton, G., Phing, R.C., Hutton, R.A., Dandona, P., Hobbs, K.E. Hepatology (1982) [Pubmed]
  17. Roles of endothelin-1 and nitric oxide in the mechanism for ethanol-induced vasoconstriction in rat liver. Oshita, M., Takei, Y., Kawano, S., Yoshihara, H., Hijioka, T., Fukui, H., Goto, M., Masuda, E., Nishimura, Y., Fusamoto, H. J. Clin. Invest. (1993) [Pubmed]
  18. Bucillamine, a thiol antioxidant, prevents transplantation-associated reperfusion injury. Amersi, F., Nelson, S.K., Shen, X.D., Kato, H., Melinek, J., Kupiec-Weglinski, J.W., Horwitz, L.D., Busuttil, R.W., Horwitz, M.A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2002) [Pubmed]
  19. Acute hepatitis in rats expressing human hepatitis B virus transgenes. Takahashi, H., Fujimoto, J., Hanada, S., Isselbacher, K.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1995) [Pubmed]
  20. Factors influencing in vivo transduction by recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors expressing the human factor IX cDNA. Nathwani, A.C., Davidoff, A., Hanawa, H., Zhou, J.F., Vanin, E.F., Nienhuis, A.W. Blood (2001) [Pubmed]
  21. Role of the hepatic artery in canalicular bile formation by the perfused rat liver. A multiple indicator dilution study. Reichen, J. J. Clin. Invest. (1988) [Pubmed]
  22. Effects of 2-camphanone on canine portal vein blood flow and rat smooth muscle. Xie, J.M., Greenberg, S.S., Longenecker, G. Gastroenterology (1992) [Pubmed]
  23. Kupffer cells participate in early clearance of syngeneic hepatocytes transplanted in the rat liver. Joseph, B., Malhi, H., Bhargava, K.K., Palestro, C.J., McCuskey, R.S., Gupta, S. Gastroenterology (2002) [Pubmed]
  24. ICI 169,369 selectively blocks 5-hydroxytryptamine2 receptors and lowers portal pressure in portal hypertensive rats. Kaumann, A.J., Morgan, J.S., Groszmann, R.J. Gastroenterology (1988) [Pubmed]
  25. Effect of somatostatin and bombesin on secretin-stimulated ductular bile flow in dogs. Kaminski, D.L., Deshpande, Y.G. Gastroenterology (1983) [Pubmed]
  26. Sympathetic discharge to mesenteric organs and the liver. Evidence for substantial mesenteric organ norepinephrine spillover. Aneman, A., Eisenhofer, G., Olbe, L., Dalenbäck, J., Nitescu, P., Fändriks, L., Friberg, P. J. Clin. Invest. (1996) [Pubmed]
  27. First-pass gastric mucosal metabolism of ethanol is negligible in the rat. Smith, T., DeMaster, E.G., Furne, J.K., Springfield, J., Levitt, M.D. J. Clin. Invest. (1992) [Pubmed]
  28. Mechanism of liver glycogen repletion in vivo by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Shulman, G.I., Rothman, D.L., Smith, D., Johnson, C.M., Blair, J.B., Shulman, R.G., DeFronzo, R.A. J. Clin. Invest. (1985) [Pubmed]
  29. Effects of alpha and beta adrenergic blockade on hepatic glucose balance before and after oral glucose. Role of insulin and glucagon. Chap, Z., Ishida, T., Chou, J., Michael, L., Hartley, C., Entman, M., Field, J.B. J. Clin. Invest. (1986) [Pubmed]
  30. Induction of immune unresponsiveness to concordant islet xenografts by intrahepatic preimmunization and transient immunosuppression. Goss, J.A., Finke, E.H., Flye, M.W., Lacy, P.E. J. Clin. Invest. (1994) [Pubmed]
  31. Endothelin 1 aggravates acute liver injury in perfused livers of rats after treatment with D-galactosamine. Iwai, M., Yamauchi, T., Shimazu, T. Hepatology (1998) [Pubmed]
  32. Angiopoietins and Tie-2 expression in angiogenesis and proliferation of human hepatocellular carcinoma. Mitsuhashi, N., Shimizu, H., Ohtsuka, M., Wakabayashi, Y., Ito, H., Kimura, F., Yoshidome, H., Kato, A., Nukui, Y., Miyazaki, M. Hepatology (2003) [Pubmed]
  33. Hepatocyte growth factor induces hepatocyte proliferation in vivo and allows for efficient retroviral-mediated gene transfer in mice. Patijn, G.A., Lieber, A., Schowalter, D.B., Schwall, R., Kay, M.A. Hepatology (1998) [Pubmed]
  34. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 enhances expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 following ischemia-reperfusion of the liver in rats. Yamaguchi, Y., Matsumura, F., Takeya, M., Ichiguchi, O., Kuratsu, J.I., Horiuchi, T., Akizuki, E., Matsuda, T., Okabe, K., Ohshiro, H., Liang, J., Mori, K., Yamada, S., Takahashi, K., Ogawa, M. Hepatology (1998) [Pubmed]
  35. Expression of mRNA for DNA methyltransferases and methyl-CpG-binding proteins and DNA methylation status on CpG islands and pericentromeric satellite regions during human hepatocarcinogenesis. Saito, Y., Kanai, Y., Sakamoto, M., Saito, H., Ishii, H., Hirohashi, S. Hepatology (2001) [Pubmed]
  36. Portal vein ligation selectively lowers hepatic cytochrome P450 levels in rats. Farrell, G.C., Zaluzny, L. Gastroenterology (1983) [Pubmed]
  37. Translocation of epidermal growth factor to the hepatocyte nucleus during rat liver regeneration. Raper, S.E., Burwen, S.J., Barker, M.E., Jones, A.L. Gastroenterology (1987) [Pubmed]
  38. Role of portal and splenic vein shunts and impaired hepatic extraction in the elevated serum bile acids in liver cirrhosis. Ohkubo, H., Okuda, K., Iida, S., Ohnishi, K., Ikawa, S., Makino, I. Gastroenterology (1984) [Pubmed]
  39. Effects of insulin, glucagon, and insuling/glucagon infusions on liver morphology and cell division after complete portacaval shunt in dogs. Starzl, T.E., Watanabe, K., Porter, K.A., Putnam, C.W. Lancet (1976) [Pubmed]
  40. Trophic influence of the sympathetic nervous system on the rat portal vein. Aprigliano, O., Hermsmeyer, K. Circ. Res. (1977) [Pubmed]
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