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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Homeotic transformation of the occipital bones of the skull by ectopic expression of a homeobox gene.

Murine Hox genes have been postulated to play a role in patterning of the embryonic body plan. Gene disruption studies have suggested that for a given Hox complex, patterning of cell identity along the antero-posterior axis is directed by the more 'posterior' (having a more posterior rostral boundary of expression) Hox proteins expressed in a given cell. This supports the 'posterior prevalence' model, which also predicts that ectopic expression of a given Hox gene would result in altered structure only in regions anterior to its normal domain of expression. To test this model further, we have expressed the Hox-4.2 gene more rostrally than its normal mesoderm anterior boundary of expression, which is at the level of the first cervical somites. This ectopic expression results in a homeotic transformation of the occipital bones towards a more posterior phenotype into structures that resemble cervical vertebrae, whereas it has no effect in regions that normally express Hox-4. 2. These results are similar to the homeotic posteriorization phenomenon generated in Drosophila by ectopic expression of genes of the homeotic complex HOM-C (refs 7-10; reviewed in ref. 3).[1]


  1. Homeotic transformation of the occipital bones of the skull by ectopic expression of a homeobox gene. Lufkin, T., Mark, M., Hart, C.P., Dollé, P., LeMeur, M., Chambon, P. Nature (1992) [Pubmed]
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