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MeSH Review

Cervical Vertebrae

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Disease relevance of Cervical Vertebrae


High impact information on Cervical Vertebrae

  • This ectopic expression results in a homeotic transformation of the occipital bones towards a more posterior phenotype into structures that resemble cervical vertebrae, whereas it has no effect in regions that normally express Hox-4 [6].
  • We found that the expression of Hoxa-4 was indeed reduced in the cartilage primordia of cervical vertebrae of embryonic day 12.5 embryos [7].
  • Mice homozygous for a targeted disruption of Hoxd-3 (Hox-4.1) exhibit anterior transformations of the first and second cervical vertebrae, the atlas and the axis [8].
  • Mutations to the FGD1 gene result in a human developmental disorder affecting specific skeletal structures, including elements of the face, cervical vertebrae and distal extremities [9].
  • Biomechanics studies have determined that after rear impact C6 is rotated back into extension before movement of the upper cervical vertebrae [10].

Anatomical context of Cervical Vertebrae

  • TECHNIQUE: The upper cervical vertebrae were exposed via a midline posterior incision, the posterior arch of C1 was excised, and the vertebral arteries were mobilized [11].
  • Fetuses were double stained with alcian blue and alizarin red for examination of cartilaginous and ossified vertebral and rib characteristics, and in selected fetuses cervical vertebrae were disarticulated for more detailed analysis [12].
  • In this situation, an anterior fusion of the second and third cervical vertebrae is preferred to a posterior fusion from the atlas to the third cervical vertebra, which would abolish lateral rotation between C1 and C2 [13].
  • We found the cervical vertebrae increasing slightly in width from C3 to C7, while the width of the lumbar vertebrae remained almost constant [14].
  • A Rando Alderson phantom comprising a natural human cranium and cervical vertebrae embedded in a thermoplastic material simulating human soft tissue was used to measure absorbed dose to the thyroid gland.These measurements were made using lithium fluoride (LiF) TLDs [15].

Associations of Cervical Vertebrae with chemical compounds


Gene context of Cervical Vertebrae


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Cervical Vertebrae


  1. Aneurysmal bone cyst of the first cervical vertebrae in a child treated with percutaneous intralesional injection of calcitonin and methylprednisolone. A case report. Gladden, M.L., Gillingham, B.L., Hennrikus, W., Vaughan, L.M. Spine. (2000) [Pubmed]
  2. Vancomycin-induced thrombocytopenia: a challenge and rechallenge. Howard, C.E., Adams, L.A., Admire, J.L., Chu, M.A., Alred, G.L. The Annals of pharmacotherapy. (1997) [Pubmed]
  3. Congenital absence of the C1 vertebral arch. Mace, S.E., Holliday, R. The American journal of emergency medicine. (1986) [Pubmed]
  4. Bifid tongue associated with midline cleft palate, mandible, cervical vertebrae and linea alba. Lu, C.Y., Teng, R.J., Hou, J.W., Cheng, T.J. Eur. J. Pediatr. (1998) [Pubmed]
  5. Klippel-Feil syndrome associated with posterior fossa dermoid cyst. Case report. González-Darder, J.M., Feliu-Tatay, R., Pesudo-Martínez, J.V., Vera-Román, J.M. Neurol. Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  6. Homeotic transformation of the occipital bones of the skull by ectopic expression of a homeobox gene. Lufkin, T., Mark, M., Hart, C.P., Dollé, P., LeMeur, M., Chambon, P. Nature (1992) [Pubmed]
  7. Retardation of skeletal development and cervical abnormalities in transgenic mice expressing a dominant-negative retinoic acid receptor in chondrogenic cells. Yamaguchi, M., Nakamoto, M., Honda, H., Nakagawa, T., Fujita, H., Nakamura, T., Hirai, H., Narumiya, S., Kakizuka, A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1998) [Pubmed]
  8. Mice homozygous for a targeted disruption of Hoxd-3 (Hox-4.1) exhibit anterior transformations of the first and second cervical vertebrae, the atlas and the axis. Condie, B.G., Capecchi, M.R. Development (1993) [Pubmed]
  9. Faciogenital dysplasia protein (FGD1) and Vav, two related proteins required for normal embryonic development, are upstream regulators of Rho GTPases. Olson, M.F., Pasteris, N.G., Gorski, J.L., Hall, A. Curr. Biol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  10. Whiplash: a review of a commonly misunderstood injury. Eck, J.C., Hodges, S.D., Humphreys, S.C. Am. J. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  11. Odontoid process and C1-C2 corrective osteotomy through a posterior approach: technical case report. Grundy, P.L., Gill, S.S. Neurosurgery (1998) [Pubmed]
  12. Methanol causes posteriorization of cervical vertebrae in mice. Connelly, L.E., Rogers, J.M. Teratology (1997) [Pubmed]
  13. Transoral fusion with internal fixation in a displaced hangman's fracture. Wilson, A.J., Marshall, R.W., Ewart, M. Spine. (1999) [Pubmed]
  14. Sagittal radiographic measurements of the cervical and lumbar vertebrae in normal adults. Gilad, I., Nissan, M. The British journal of radiology. (1985) [Pubmed]
  15. Reduction of absorbed doses to the thyroid gland in orthodontic treatment planning by reducing the area of irradiation. Svenson, B., Sjöholm, B., Jonsson, B. Swedish dental journal. (2004) [Pubmed]
  16. Mutations in paralogous Hox genes result in overlapping homeotic transformations of the axial skeleton: evidence for unique and redundant function. Horan, G.S., Kovàcs, E.N., Behringer, R.R., Featherstone, M.S. Dev. Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  17. X-linked skeletal dysplasia with mental retardation. Christian, J.C., DeMyer Franken, E.A., Huff, J.S., Khairi, S., Reed, T. Clin. Genet. (1977) [Pubmed]
  18. Neck-tongue syndrome. Chedrawi, A.K., Fishman, M.A., Miller, G. Pediatric neurology. (2000) [Pubmed]
  19. RARbeta mediates the response of Hoxd4 and Hoxb4 to exogenous retinoic acid. Folberg, A., Nagy Kovács, E., Luo, J., Giguère, V., Featherstone, M.S. Dev. Dyn. (1999) [Pubmed]
  20. Hoxd4 and Rarg interact synergistically in the specification of the cervical vertebrae. Folberg, A., Kovács, E.N., Huang, H., Houle, M., Lohnes, D., Featherstone, M.S. Mech. Dev. (1999) [Pubmed]
  21. Transcription factors Nkx3.1 and Nkx3.2 (Bapx1) play an overlapping role in sclerotomal development of the mouse. Herbrand, H., Pabst, O., Hill, R., Arnold, H.H. Mech. Dev. (2002) [Pubmed]
  22. Homeotic transformation of cervical vertebrae in Hoxa-4 mutant mice. Horan, G.S., Wu, K., Wolgemuth, D.J., Behringer, R.R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1994) [Pubmed]
  23. Acute quadriplegia following closed traction reduction of a cervical facet dislocation in the setting of ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament: case report. Wimberley, D.W., Vaccaro, A.R., Goyal, N., Harrop, J.S., Anderson, D.G., Albert, T.J., Hilibrand, A.S. Spine. (2005) [Pubmed]
  24. Spinal cord Ewing's sarcoma metastasis: presentation of one case. Kara, G. Annals of nuclear medicine. (2004) [Pubmed]
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