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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
 
 
 

Antiangiogenic and antitumor agents. Design, synthesis, and evaluation of novel 2-amino-4-(3-bromoanilino)-6-benzylsubstituted pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidines as inhibitors of receptor tyrosine kinases.

Several different classes of growth factor receptors containing tyrosine kinases (RTK) are directly or indirectly involved in angiogenesis. Inhibition of these RTKs has provided a new paradigm in the treatment of tumors by restricting their growth and metastasis. We have designed, synthesized and evaluated eleven novel 2-amino-4-(3-bromoanilino)-6-substituted benzyl pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidines as the first in a series of RTK inhibitors. These analogues were synthesized from appropriate alpha-bromomethylbenzyl ketones by cyclocondensation with 2,6-diamino-4-pyrimidone to afford the 2-amino-4-oxo-6-substituted benzyl pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidines. Chlorination of the 4-position followed by displacement with 3-bromoaniline afforded the target compounds. In some instances, the 2-amino moiety of the pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidines was protected prior to the chlorination and displacement followed by deprotection. The compounds were evaluated as inhibitors of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors VEGFR-2 (Flk-1, KDR) and VEGFR-1 (Flt-1); epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR); and platelet-derived growth factor receptor-beta (PDGFR-beta). Selected compounds were also evaluated against the growth of A431 cells (which overexpress EGFR) in culture and as inhibitors of angiogenesis in the chicken embryo chorioallantonic membrane (CAM) assay. In each evaluation, a known standard compound was used as a comparison. Of the 11 analogues, five were more potent or equipotent as compared to standard compounds against the growth factor receptors. Two analogues showed superior inhibition of A431 cells in culture compared to the standard compounds. Three analogues were equipotent with the standard compound in the CAM assay and four of the analogues were dual inhibitors of RTKs. The structure-activity relationship for inhibition of different RTKs was quite distinct and different, and for VEGFR-2 and EGFR diametrically opposite. The inhibitory data against the RTKs in this study demonstrates that variation of the substituent(s) in the benzyl ring of these 2-amino-4-anilino 6-benzyl pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidines does indeed control both the potency and specificity of inhibitory activity against RTKs.[1]

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