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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Serum mepivacaine concentrations after intraoral injection in young children.

The authors measured plasma concentrations of mepivacaine in 36 children from the ages of 2 to 5 years who received dental care under light general anesthesia. The subjects were randomly assigned to receive either 2 percent mepivacaine hydrochloride with 1:20,000 levonordefrin or 3 percent mepivacaine hydrochloride without vasoconstrictor. The volume of anesthetic injected depended on the planned procedures for each patient. Blood samples (3 mL) were drawn from an intravenous line before and 5, 10, 20, 30, 45, and 60 minutes after mepivacaine injection. The serum was collected and analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography. Mean serum concentrations, normalized to a dose of 1 mg/kg body weight, reached a peak of 0.67 +/- 0.42 microgram/mL (mean +/- SD) after 3 percent mepivacaine and 0.63 +/- 0.21 microgram/mL after 2 percent mepivacaine with levonordefrin. Levonordefrin had no significant effect on the plasma concentrations. However, because of the higher concentration of mepivacaine in the 3 percent formulation, it was potentially 1.5 times as toxic (P < 0.002) on a volume basis. Statistical analysis also suggested that the maximum recommended dose of 3 mg/lb could result in potentially toxic blood concentrations in a small percentage of pediatric patients. The authors conclude that 3 percent mepivacaine should not be used when relatively large volumes of local anesthetic must be administered to small children and recommend that the maximum dose of mepivacaine not exceed 5 mg/kg.[1]


  1. Serum mepivacaine concentrations after intraoral injection in young children. Chin, K.L., Yagiela, J.A., Quinn, C.L., Henderson, K.R., Duperon, D.F. Journal of the California Dental Association. (2003) [Pubmed]
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