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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Cooperative induction of 15-lipoxygenase in rheumatoid synovial cells by IL-4 and proinflammatory cytokines.

OBJECTIVE: To clarify the role of interleukin-4 (IL-4) in the expression of 15-lipoxygenase (15-LOX), whose metabolities are known to suppress the inflammatory reaction, in freshly prepared rheumatoid synovial cells. METHODS: Adherent synovial cells were prepared by enzymatic digestion of synovia obtained from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Protein expression of 15-LOX was determined by Western blot analysis. The messenger RNAs of 15-LOX were determined by reverse transcription and the polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). RESULTS: Freshly prepared rheumatoid synovial cells did not express 15-LOX at either the mRNA or protein levels. IL-4 induced the protein expression of 15-LOX after 24 hours of culture. Although interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1 alpha) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha), major inflammatory cytokines in rheumatoid synovia, did not induce the expression of 15-LOX, IL-4 and these inflammatory cytokines synergistically enhanced the protein expression of 15-LOX. The synergistic effect was also observed at the level of mRNA. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate that IL-4 cooperated with the inflammatory cytokines IL-1 alpha and TNF alpha to enhance the expression of 15-LOX in rheumatoid synovial cells. Since 15-LOX metabolites have potent anti-inflammatory actions, our data suggest that IL-4 might downregulate rheumatoid inflammation via the induction of 15-LOX and its metabolites.[1]


  1. Cooperative induction of 15-lipoxygenase in rheumatoid synovial cells by IL-4 and proinflammatory cytokines. Harada, S., Sugiyama, E., Takebe, S., Taki, H., Shinoda, K., Mohamed, S.G., Maruyama, M., Hamazaki, T., Kobayashi, M. Clinical and experimental rheumatology. (2003) [Pubmed]
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