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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Conservation of the PRM1 --> PRM2 --> TNP2 domain.

In mouse and human, the genes encoding protamines PRM1, PRM2 and transition protein TNP2 are found clustered together on chromosome 16. In addition, these three genes lie in the same orientation to one another and are coordinately expressed in a haploid-specific manner during spermatogenesis. Previously, we have shown that the human PRM1 --> PRM2 --> TNP2 locus exists as a single chromatin domain bounded by two male germ cell-specific MARs, i.e. Matrix Attachment Regions. A third, somatic-specific MAR element lies immediately 3' of the PRM1 --> PRM2 --> TNP2 domain. This MAR maps to a conserved CpG island 5' of the human SOCS-1 gene. Similarly, two candidate MARs flank the mouse Prm1 --> Prm2 --> Tnp2 domain. Comparative analysis of the mouse and human promoter regions identified several conserved regulatory motifs for each of the genes of this cluster. This further establishes the synteny of this region. Global structural similarities and the functional relevance of the associated candidate regulatory elements are discussed.[1]


  1. Conservation of the PRM1 --> PRM2 --> TNP2 domain. Wykes, S.M., Krawetz, S.A. DNA Seq. (2003) [Pubmed]
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