The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)



Gene Review

TNP2  -  transition protein 2 (during histone to...

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: Nuclear transition protein 2, TP-2, TP2
Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of TNP2

  • Protein classes similar to TNP1 and TNP2 that are also found in human colonic adenocarcinomas are not detectable in polyps from familial polyposis-affected patients at times when no sign of malignancy has yet appeared [1].
  • Both Lys-6 and Lys-65 were modified in TNP-2, and modification of Lys-65 caused a further reduction of the lethal toxicity to 12.6% [2].

High impact information on TNP2

  • In addition, GRTH participated in the nuclear export of RNA messages (PGK2, tACE, and TP2) in a gene-specific manner [3].
  • Thus, the MARs bounding the PRM1 --> PRM2 --> TNP2 protamine domain have many and varied functions [4].
  • Methylation of G at the N-7 position with dimethyl sulfate did not affect the recognition of CpG island by TP2 [5].
  • Preincubation of TP2 with 10 mM EDTA or 1 mM 1, 10-o-phenanthroline inhibited the complex formation by more than 90% [5].
  • Rat spermatidal protein TP2 is a zinc metalloprotein with two atoms of zinc coordinated to cysteine and histidine residues and condenses alternating GC copolymer preferentially in a zinc dependent manner [Kundu, T. K., & Rao, M. R. S. (1995) Biochemistry 34,5143-5150] [5].

Biological context of TNP2

  • The genes for three of these low molecular weight basic nuclear proteins exist as a single linear array of PRM1, PRM2, and TNP2 on human chromosome 16p13 [6].
  • The members of the male haploid expressed protamine 1 (PRM1)-->protamine 2 (PRM2)-->transition protein 2 (TNP2) locus exist as a single, coordinately expressed genic domain [7].
  • In mouse and human, the genes encoding protamines PRM1, PRM2 and transition protein TNP2 are found clustered together on chromosome 16 [8].
  • To understand better the coordinate control governing this transformation, we have examined the localization and distribution of the human protamines PRM1 and PRM2 and transition protein TNP2 transcripts during human spermatogenesis [9].
  • The expression of the PRM1, PRM2, and TNP2 genes facilitates the compaction and condensation of the genetic material within the developing spermatid [9].

Anatomical context of TNP2

  • Analysis of the haploid-expressed human PRM1 --> PRM2 --> TNP2 genic domain has revealed two regions of attachment to the sperm nuclear matrix [10].
  • CONCLUSION(S): In the present patient the breakpoint at 16p13.3 could have disrupted or harbored the PRM1, PRM2, or TNP2 genes responsible for the replacement of the histones involved in packaging the DNA into the sperm head [11].
  • These data indicate that the human PRM1, PRM2, and TNP2 transcripts are expressed postmeiotically in round and elongating spermatids [9].
  • Coordinate expression of the PRM1, PRM2, and TNP2 multigene locus in human testis [9].
  • PRM1, PRM2, and TNP2 transcripts were abundant in association with round and elongating spermatids, located in the adluminal region of the seminiferous epithelium [9].

Associations of TNP2 with chemical compounds

  • We demonstrate here that 525 bp of 5'- and 920 bp of 3'-flanking sequences of rat TNP2 gene could properly and efficiently direct chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene expression to the postmeiotic male germ cells of transgenic mice [12].
  • The condensation of the alternating copolymers by TP2 (incubated with 10 microM ZnSO4), namely, poly(dG-dC).poly(dG-dC) and poly(dA-dT).poly(dA-dT), was severalfold higher than condensation of either of the homoduplexes poly(dG).poly-(dC) and poly(dA).poly(dT) or rat oligonucleosomal DNA [13].
  • The 5 kb transcript of tnp2 contains an open reading frame that shares 45% homology with part of the tnpD gene of En/Spm from maize and 48% homology with an open reading frame of the Tgm element from Glycine max [14].

Other interactions of TNP2


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of TNP2


  1. Changes in chromosomal proteins in colon cancer: the complexity and DNA-binding properties of tumor-associated proteins and evidence for their association with the malignant state in human colonic epithelium. Boffa, L.C., Allfrey, V.G. Cancer (1977) [Pubmed]
  2. Studies on the status of lysine residues in phospholipase A2 from Naja naja atra (Taiwan cobra) snake venom. Yang, C.C., Chang, L.S. Biochem. J. (1989) [Pubmed]
  3. Gonadotropin-regulated Testicular RNA Helicase (GRTH/Ddx25) Is a Transport Protein Involved in Gene-specific mRNA Export and Protein Translation during Spermatogenesis. Sheng, Y., Tsai-Morris, C.H., Gutti, R., Maeda, Y., Dufau, M.L. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. Nuclear matrix interactions at the human protamine domain: a working model of potentiation. Martins, R.P., Ostermeier, G.C., Krawetz, S.A. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. Zinc dependent recognition of a human CpG island sequence by the mammalian spermatidal protein TP2. Kundu, T.K., Rao, M.R. Biochemistry (1996) [Pubmed]
  6. A haploid expressed gene cluster exists as a single chromatin domain in human sperm. Choudhary, S.K., Wykes, S.M., Kramer, J.A., Mohamed, A.N., Koppitch, F., Nelson, J.E., Krawetz, S.A. J. Biol. Chem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  7. Genesis of a novel human sequence from the protamine PRM1 gene. Kramer, J.A., Krawetz, S.A. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. C, Pharmacol. Toxicol. Endocrinol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  8. Conservation of the PRM1 --> PRM2 --> TNP2 domain. Wykes, S.M., Krawetz, S.A. DNA Seq. (2003) [Pubmed]
  9. Coordinate expression of the PRM1, PRM2, and TNP2 multigene locus in human testis. Wykes, S.M., Nelson, J.E., Visscher, D.W., Djakiew, D., Krawetz, S.A. DNA Cell Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  10. Nuclear matrix interactions within the sperm genome. Kramer, J.A., Krawetz, S.A. J. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  11. Reciprocal translocation t(7;16)(q21.2;p13.3) in an infertile man. Mikelsaar, R., Pauklin, M., Lissitsina, J., Punab, M. Fertil. Steril. (2006) [Pubmed]
  12. Rat transition nuclear protein 2 regulatory region directs haploid expression of reporter gene in male germ cells of transgenic mice. Nayernia, K., Böhm, D., Topaloglu , O., Schlüter, G., Engel, W. Mol. Reprod. Dev. (2001) [Pubmed]
  13. DNA condensation by the rat spermatidal protein TP2 shows GC-rich sequence preference and is zinc dependent. Kundu, T.K., Rao, M.R. Biochemistry (1995) [Pubmed]
  14. The transposable element Tam1 from Antirrhinum majus shows structural homology to the maize transposon En/Spm and has no sequence specificity of insertion. Nacken, W.K., Piotrowiak, R., Saedler, H., Sommer, H. Mol. Gen. Genet. (1991) [Pubmed]
  15. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms and mutation analyses of the TNP1 and TNP2 genes of fertile and infertile human male populations. Miyagawa, Y., Nishimura, H., Tsujimura, A., Matsuoka, Y., Matsumiya, K., Okuyama, A., Nishimune, Y., Tanaka, H. J. Androl. (2005) [Pubmed]
  16. Probing calcium ion-induced conformational changes of Taiwan cobra phospholipase A2 by trinitrophenylation of lysine residues. Chang, L.S., Lin, S.R., Chang, C.C. J. Protein Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  17. Functional involvement of Lys-6 in the enzymatic activity of phospholipase A2 from Bungarus multicinctus (Taiwan banded krait) snake venom. Chang, L.S., Kuo, K.W., Lin, S.R., Chang, C.C. J. Protein Chem. (1994) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities