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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Slac2-a/melanophilin contains multiple PEST-like sequences that are highly sensitive to proteolysis.

The synaptotagmin-like protein homologue lacking C2 domains-a (Slac2-a)/melanophilin was recently identified as the "missing link" between the small GTPase Rab27A and the actin-based motor protein myosin Va. Although formation of a tripartite protein complex by three molecules had been shown to be required for proper melanosome distribution in melanocytes (Kuroda, T. S., Ariga, H., and Fukuda, M. (2003) Mol. Cell. Biol. 23, 5245-5255), the regulatory mechanisms of the complex (i.e. assembly and disassembly of the complex) had never been elucidated. In this study, we discovered that Slac2-a and a closely related isoform, Slac2-c/MyRIP, contain multiple PEST-like sequences (potential signals for rapid protein degradation) in the myosin Va- and actin-binding domains at the C terminus. We found that the C-terminal domain of Slac2-a is highly sensitive to low concentrations of proteases, such as trypsin and calpain, in vitro, whereas the N-terminal Rab27A-binding domain is highly resistant to these proteases. We further found that endogenous calpains selectively cleave Slac2-a, but not Rab27A or myosin Va, in melanocytes. A mutant Slac2-a lacking one of the PEST-like sequences located at the interface between the myosin Va- and actin-binding domains (DeltaPEST; amino acids 399-405) is more stable than the wild-type protein, both in vitro and in melanocytes. Expression of the mutant Slac2-a-DeltaPEST with an N-terminal green fluorescence protein tag often induced perinuclear aggregation of melanosomes ( approximately 40% of the transfected cells) compared with the wild-type Slac2-a. Our findings suggest that protein degradation of Slac2-a is an essential process for proper melanosome distribution in melanocytes.[1]


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