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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

NF-kappaB activation mechanism of 4-hydroxyhexenal via NIK/IKK and p38 MAPK pathway.

4-Hydroxyhexenal (HHE) is known to affect redox balance during aging, included are vascular dysfunctions. To better understand vascular abnormality through the molecular alterations resulting from HHE accumulation in aging processes, we set out to determine whether up-regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase ( MAPK) by HHE is mediated through nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) activation in endothelial cells. HHE induced NF-kappaB activation by inhibitor of kappaB (IkappaB) phosphorylation via the IkappaB kinase (IKK)/NF-kappaB inducing kinase (NIK) pathway. HHE increased the activity of p38 MAPK and extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK), but not c-jun NH(2)-terminal kinase, indicating that p38 MAPK and ERK are closely involved in HHE-induced NF-kappaB transactivation. Pretreatment with ERK inhibitor PD98059, and p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580, attenuated the induction of p65 translocation, IkappaB phosphorylation, and NF-kappaB luciferase activity. These findings strongly suggest that HHE induces NF-kappaB activation through IKK/NIK pathway and/or p38 MAPK and ERK activation associated with oxidative stress in endothelial cells.[1]


  1. NF-kappaB activation mechanism of 4-hydroxyhexenal via NIK/IKK and p38 MAPK pathway. Je, J.H., Lee, J.Y., Jung, K.J., Sung, B., Go, E.K., Yu, B.P., Chung, H.Y. FEBS Lett. (2004) [Pubmed]
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