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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

The effects of cocaine on gonadal steroid hormones and LH in male and female rhesus monkeys.

Cocaine stimulates significant increases in estradiol, testosterone (T), and luteinizing hormone (LH) in rhesus monkeys, but the temporal interactions between the gonadal steroid hormones and LH have not been determined. The effects of i.v. cocaine (0.8 mg/kg) or saline placebo administration on estradiol, T, and LH were compared in follicular phase female and male rhesus monkeys. Samples for hormone analysis were collected at 2-min intervals for 20 min, then at 10-min intervals for 50 min. Peak plasma cocaine levels were detected at 4 min and pharmacokinetic analyses showed no significant gender differences. Baseline hormone levels were equivalent before saline and cocaine administration, and saline did not alter LH or estradiol levels. In females, when baseline estradiol levels were low (< 100 pg/ml), LH increased significantly within 8 min after cocaine administration (P < 0.05), but when baseline estradiol levels were high (> 100 pg/ml), LH levels did not change significantly after cocaine administration. Estradiol and T increased significantly after LH, within 16 min after cocaine administration (P < 0.01-0.001). In males, significant LH increases were detected at 16 min after cocaine administration (P < 0.05-0.001), but estradiol and T did not change significantly. Thus, cocaine may stimulate significant increases in estradiol and T in females but not in males. These rapid hormonal changes may contribute to cocaine's abuse-related effects, as well as to disruptions of the menstrual cycle during chronic cocaine administration.[1]


  1. The effects of cocaine on gonadal steroid hormones and LH in male and female rhesus monkeys. Mello, N.K., Mendelson, J.H., Negus, S.S., Kelly, M., Knudson, I., Roth, M.E. Neuropsychopharmacology (2004) [Pubmed]
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