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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review

Follicular Phase

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Disease relevance of Follicular Phase


Psychiatry related information on Follicular Phase


High impact information on Follicular Phase


Chemical compound and disease context of Follicular Phase


Biological context of Follicular Phase


Anatomical context of Follicular Phase


Associations of Follicular Phase with chemical compounds

  • RESULTS: The mean plasma estradiol level was 30% lower in the follicular phase in women with depression than in their matched controls: 191 + 136 vs 261 + 169 pmol/L (52 + 37 vs 71 + 46 pg/mL) [28].
  • RESULTS: There was a significant group x phase interaction with most of the finding explained by the reduction in cortical GABA levels during the follicular phase in those with PMDD compared with healthy controls [29].
  • Serum Dpyr was higher during the follicular phase (FP) than in the luteal phase (p = 0.027) [30].
  • Brief wake episodes modulate sleep-inhibited luteinizing hormone secretion in the early follicular phase [31].
  • After baseline sampling during a 24-h control period in the early follicular phase (days 1-6), two TMTDS patches were applied with an expected delivery rate of 300 microg testosterone daily over an application period of 3-4 days [32].

Gene context of Follicular Phase

  • Although greater absolute amounts of each species of IL-1 were secreted during the follicular phase, the ratio of agonist to antagonist secreted was greater in the luteal phase (p < 0.05), in agreement with previous studies of bioactivity [33].
  • IGFBP-3 concentrations decreased in healthy follicles as the follicular phase progressed [34].
  • In FF specimens obtained during the follicular phase, IGFBP-2 and the 28 kDa and 24 kDa species were present in 3-, 6-, and 19-fold higher amounts in atretic compared to healthy developing follicles, respectively, and were present in greater amounts in atretic FF than in serum [35].
  • We studied the GH and PRL responses to GHRH1-44 (50 micrograms IV) and the effect of a naloxone infusion (1.6 mg/hr), started 1 hr before GHRH administration, on this response in 12 female patients with AN, aged 15-30 yr, and in seven normal women, aged 19-27 yr, during the follicular phase as controls [36].
  • RESULTS: In the female patients, TSH, DHEAS, follicular-phase LH, and luteal-phase estradiol were significantly lower than in the control groups, with prolactin and SHBG significantly higher [37].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Follicular Phase


  1. Serum bioactive and immunoreactive luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone levels in women with cycle abnormalities, with or without polycystic ovarian disease. Fauser, B.C., Pache, T.D., Lamberts, S.W., Hop, W.C., de Jong, F.H., Dahl, K.D. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1991) [Pubmed]
  2. Determinants of abnormal gonadotropin secretion in clinically defined women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Taylor, A.E., McCourt, B., Martin, K.A., Anderson, E.J., Adams, J.M., Schoenfeld, D., Hall, J.E. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1997) [Pubmed]
  3. Bone resorption is affected by follicular phase length in female rotating shift workers. Lohstroh, P.N., Chen, J., Ba, J., Ryan, L.M., Xu, X., Overstreet, J.W., Lasley, B.L. Environ. Health Perspect. (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. Elimination of spontaneous and chemically induced chromosome aberrations in mice during early embryogenesis. Basler, A., Buselmaier, B., Röhrborn, G. Hum. Genet. (1976) [Pubmed]
  5. Serum levels of androgens are higher in women with premenstrual irritability and dysphoria than in controls. Eriksson, E., Sundblad, C., Lisjö, P., Modigh, K., Andersch, B. Psychoneuroendocrinology (1992) [Pubmed]
  6. Estrogen deficiency in severe postpartum depression: successful treatment with sublingual physiologic 17beta-estradiol: a preliminary study. Ahokas, A., Kaukoranta, J., Wahlbeck, K., Aito, M. The Journal of clinical psychiatry. (2001) [Pubmed]
  7. Cognitive function effects of suppressing ovarian hormones in young women. Owens, J.F., Matthews, K.A., Everson, S.A. Menopause (New York, N.Y.) (2002) [Pubmed]
  8. Pituitary-ovarian responses to nafarelin testing in the polycystic ovary syndrome. Barnes, R.B., Rosenfield, R.L., Burstein, S., Ehrmann, D.A. N. Engl. J. Med. (1989) [Pubmed]
  9. Progesterone implants enhance SIV vaginal transmission and early virus load. Marx, P.A., Spira, A.I., Gettie, A., Dailey, P.J., Veazey, R.S., Lackner, A.A., Mahoney, C.J., Miller, C.J., Claypool, L.E., Ho, D.D., Alexander, N.J. Nat. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  10. Mastectomy and oophorectomy by menstrual cycle phase in women with operable breast cancer. Love, R.R., Duc, N.B., Dinh, N.V., Shen, T.Z., Havighurst, T.C., Allred, D.C., DeMets, D.L. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (2002) [Pubmed]
  11. Effects of alcohol consumption on plasma and urinary hormone concentrations in premenopausal women. Reichman, M.E., Judd, J.T., Longcope, C., Schatzkin, A., Clevidence, B.A., Nair, P.P., Campbell, W.S., Taylor, P.R. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1993) [Pubmed]
  12. Oestrogen profiles of parous and nulliparous women. Cole, P., MacMahon, B., Brown, J.B. Lancet (1976) [Pubmed]
  13. Subnormal follicular-phase serum progesterone levels and elevated follicular-phase serum estradiol levels in young women with insulin-dependent diabetes. Zumoff, B., Miller, L., Poretsky, L., Levit, C.D., Miller, E.H., Heinz, U., Denman, H., Jandorek, R., Rosenfeld, R.S. Steroids (1990) [Pubmed]
  14. Luteal phase dysfunction in endometriosis: elevated progesterone levels in peripheral and ovarian veins during the follicular phase. Ayers, J.W., Birenbaum, D.L., Menon, K.M. Fertil. Steril. (1987) [Pubmed]
  15. Effects of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist and clomiphene citrate on estrogen/progesterone-induced hyperprolactinemia in monkeys. Groff, T.R., Olive, D.L., Riehl, R.M., Schenken, R.S. Fertil. Steril. (1990) [Pubmed]
  16. An economic evaluation of laparoscopic ovarian diathermy versus gonadotrophin therapy for women with clomiphene citrate resistant polycystic ovary syndrome. Farquhar, C.M., Williamson, K., Brown, P.M., Garland, J. Hum. Reprod. (2004) [Pubmed]
  17. Effects of follicular-phase cocaine administration on menstrual and ovarian cyclicity in rhesus monkeys. Potter, D.A., Moreno, A., Luther, M.F., Eddy, C.A., Siler-Khodr, T.M., King, T.S., Schenken, R.S. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  18. Unexpected responses of the hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone "pulse generator" to physiological estradiol inputs in the absence of the ovary. Kesner, J.S., Wilson, R.C., Kaufman, J.M., Hotchkiss, J., Chen, Y., Yamamoto, H., Pardo, R.R., Knobil, E. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1987) [Pubmed]
  19. Fluctuation of HER2 expression in breast carcinomas during the menstrual cycle. Balsari, A., Casalini, P., Tagliabue, E., Greco, M., Pilotti, S., Agresti, R., Giovanazzi, R., Alasio, L., Rumio, C., Cascinelli, N., Colnaghi, M.I., Ménard, S. Am. J. Pathol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  20. Immunoreactive relaxin in human serum during the menstrual cycle. Bryant, G.D., Panter, M.E., Stelmasiak, T. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1975) [Pubmed]
  21. Changes in enzyme activities related to steroidogenesis in human ovaries during the menstrual cycle. Sano, Y., Suzuki, K., Arai, K., Okinaga, S., Tamaoki, B.I. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1981) [Pubmed]
  22. Differential release of prolactin variants in postpartum and early follicular phase women. Liu, J.H., Lee, D.W., Markoff, E. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1990) [Pubmed]
  23. Estrogen stimulates neuronal nitric oxide synthase protein expression in human neutrophils. García-Durán, M., de Frutos, T., Díaz-Recasens, J., García-Gálvez, G., Jiménez, A., Montón, M., Farré, J., Sánchez de Miguel, L., González-Fernández, F., Arriero, M.D., Rico, L., García, R., Casado, S., López-Farré, A. Circ. Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  24. Human uterine leiomyomata express higher levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, retinoid X receptor alpha, and all-trans retinoic acid than myometrium. Tsibris, J.C., Porter, K.B., Jazayeri, A., Tzimas, G., Nau, H., Huang, H., Kuparadze, K., Porter, G.W., O'Brien, W.F., Spellacy, W.N. Cancer Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  25. Reproductive biology and IVF: ovarian stimulation and luteal phase consequences. Fauser, B.C., Devroey, P. Trends Endocrinol. Metab. (2003) [Pubmed]
  26. Follicular arrest in polycystic ovary syndrome is associated with deficient inhibin A and B biosynthesis. Welt, C.K., Taylor, A.E., Fox, J., Messerlian, G.M., Adams, J.M., Schneyer, A.L. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2005) [Pubmed]
  27. Patterns of changes in glycoproteins, polypeptides, and steroids in the peritoneal fluid of women during the periovulatory phase of the menstrual cycle. Bouckaert, P.X., Evers, J.L., Doesburg, W.H., Schellekens, L.A., Rolland, R. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1986) [Pubmed]
  28. Alteration in the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis in depressed women. Young, E.A., Midgley, A.R., Carlson, N.E., Brown, M.B. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (2000) [Pubmed]
  29. Cortical gamma-aminobutyric acid levels across the menstrual cycle in healthy women and those with premenstrual dysphoric disorder: a proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study. Epperson, C.N., Haga, K., Mason, G.F., Sellers, E., Gueorguieva, R., Zhang, W., Weiss, E., Rothman, D.L., Krystal, J.H. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (2002) [Pubmed]
  30. Changes in bone resorption during the menstrual cycle. Chiu, K.M., Ju, J., Mayes, D., Bacchetti, P., Weitz, S., Arnaud, C.D. J. Bone Miner. Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  31. Brief wake episodes modulate sleep-inhibited luteinizing hormone secretion in the early follicular phase. Hall, J.E., Sullivan, J.P., Richardson, G.S. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2005) [Pubmed]
  32. Pharmacokinetics of a novel testosterone matrix transdermal system in healthy, premenopausal women and women infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. Javanbakht, M., Singh, A.B., Mazer, N.A., Beall, G., Sinha-Hikim, I., Shen, R., Bhasin, S. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2000) [Pubmed]
  33. Gender differences in IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, and IL-1 receptor antagonist secretion from mononuclear cells and urinary excretion. Lynch, E.A., Dinarello, C.A., Cannon, J.G. J. Immunol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  34. Insulin-like growth factor-binding proteins in healthy and atretic follicles during natural menstrual cycles. San Roman, G.A., Magoffin, D.A. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1993) [Pubmed]
  35. Insulin-like growth factor binding protein profiles in human ovarian follicular fluid correlate with follicular functional status. Cataldo, N.A., Giudice, L.C. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1992) [Pubmed]
  36. Influence of naloxone infusion on prolactin and growth hormone response to growth hormone-releasing hormone in anorexia nervosa. De Marinis, L., Mancini, A., D'Amico, C., Zuppi, P., Tofani, A., Della Casa, S., Saporosi, A., Sambo, P., Fiumara, C., Calabró, F. Psychoneuroendocrinology (1991) [Pubmed]
  37. Serum sex hormones are altered in patients with chronic temporal lobe epilepsy receiving anticonvulsant medication. Stoffel-Wagner, B., Bauer, J., Flügel, D., Brennemann, W., Klingmüller, D., Elger, C.E. Epilepsia (1998) [Pubmed]
  38. Effect of superovulation with human menopausal gonadotropins on growth hormone levels in women. Wilson, E.E., Word, R.A., Byrd, W., Carr, B.R. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1991) [Pubmed]
  39. Human recombinant activin-A alters pituitary luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone secretion, follicular development, and steroidogenesis, during the menstrual cycle in rhesus monkeys. Stouffer, R.L., Woodruff, T.K., Dahl, K.D., Hess, D.L., Mather, J.P., Molskness, T.A. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1993) [Pubmed]
  40. Secretion rates of LH and FSH during infusion of LH-FSH/RH in normal women and in patients with secondary amenorrhea: suggestive evidence for two pools of LH and FSH. Koninckx, P., De Hertogh, R., Heyns, W., Meulepas, E., Brosens, I., De Moor, P. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1976) [Pubmed]
  41. Effects of progestins on estradiol receptor levels in human endometrium. Tseng, L., Gurpide, E. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1975) [Pubmed]
  42. Homologous in vitro bioassay for follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) reveals increased FSH biological signal during the mid- to late luteal phase of the human menstrual cycle. Christin-Maitre, S., Taylor, A.E., Khoury, R.H., Hall, J.E., Martin, K.A., Smith, P.C., Albanese, C., Jameson, J.L., Crowley, W.F., Sluss, P.M. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1996) [Pubmed]
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