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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Trafficking of exogenous peptides into proteasome-dependent major histocompatibility complex class I pathway following enterotoxin B subunit-mediated delivery.

The B-subunit component of Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin (EtxB), which binds to cell surface GM1 ganglioside receptors, was recently shown to be a highly effective vehicle for delivery of conjugated peptides into the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I pathway. In this study we have investigated the pathway of epitope delivery. The peptides used contained the epitope either located at the C terminus or with a C-terminal extension. Pretreatment of cells with cholesterol-disrupting agents blocked transport of EtxB conjugates to the Golgi/endoplasmic reticulum, but did not affect EtxB-mediated MHC class I presentation. Under these conditions, EtxB conjugates entered EEA1-positive early endosomes where peptides were cleaved and translocated into the cytosol. Endosome acidification was required for epitope presentation. Purified 20 S immunoproteasomes were able to generate the epitope from peptides in vitro, but 26 S proteasomes were not. Only presentation from the C-terminal extended peptide was proteasome-dependent in cells, and this was found to be significantly slower than presentation from peptides with the epitope at the C terminus. These results implicate the proteasome in the generation of the correct C terminus of the epitope and are consistent with proteasome-independent N-terminal trimming. Epitope presentation was blocked in a TAP-deficient cell line, providing further evidence that conjugated peptides enter the cytosol as well as demonstrating a requirement for the peptide transporter. Our findings demonstrate the utility of EtxB-mediated peptide delivery for rapid and efficient loading of MHC class I epitopes in several different cell types. Conjugated peptides are released from early endosomes into the cytosol where they gain access to proteasomes and TAP in the "classical" pathway of class I presentation.[1]


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