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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
 
 
 
 
 

Vacuolar sulfate transporters are essential determinants controlling internal distribution of sulfate in Arabidopsis.

Uptake of external sulfate from the environment and use of internal vacuolar sulfate pools are two important aspects of the acquisition of sulfur for metabolism. In this study, we demonstrated that the vacuolar SULTR4-type sulfate transporter facilitates the efflux of sulfate from the vacuoles and plays critical roles in optimizing the internal distribution of sulfate in Arabidopsis thaliana. SULTR4;1-green fluorescent protein (GFP) and SULTR4;2-GFP fusion proteins were expressed under the control of their own promoters in transgenic Arabidopsis. The fusion proteins were accumulated specifically in the tonoplast membranes and were localized predominantly in the pericycle and xylem parenchyma cells of roots and hypocotyls. In roots, SULTR4;1 was constantly accumulated regardless of the changes of sulfur conditions, whereas SULTR4;2 became abundant by sulfur limitation. In shoots, both transporters were accumulated by sulfur limitation. Vacuoles isolated from callus of the sultr4;1 sultr4;2 double knockout showed excess accumulation of sulfate, which was substantially decreased by overexpression of SULTR4;1-GFP. In seedlings, the supplied [(35)S]sulfate was retained in the root tissue of the sultr4;1 sultr4;2 double knockout mutant. Comparison of the double and single knockouts suggested that SULTR4;1 plays a major role and SULTR4;2 has a supplementary function. Overexpression of SULTR4;1-GFP significantly decreased accumulation of [(35)S]sulfate in the root tissue, complementing the phenotype of the double mutant. These results suggested that SULTR4-type transporters, particularly SULTR4;1, actively mediate the efflux of sulfate from the vacuole lumen into the cytoplasm and influence the capacity for vacuolar storage of sulfate in the root tissue. The efflux function will promote rapid turnover of sulfate from the vacuoles particularly in the vasculature under conditions of low-sulfur supply, which will optimize the symplastic (cytoplasmic) flux of sulfate channeled toward the xylem vessels.[1]

References

  1. Vacuolar sulfate transporters are essential determinants controlling internal distribution of sulfate in Arabidopsis. Kataoka, T., Watanabe-Takahashi, A., Hayashi, N., Ohnishi, M., Mimura, T., Buchner, P., Hawkesford, M.J., Yamaya, T., Takahashi, H. Plant Cell (2004) [Pubmed]
 
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