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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

In vitro characterization of clobazam metabolism by recombinant cytochrome P450 enzymes: importance of CYP2C19.

The specific cytochrome P450 (P450) isoforms mediating the biotransformations of clobazam (CLB) and those of its major metabolites, N-desmethylclobazam (NCLB) and 4'-hydroxyclobazam were identified using cDNA-expressed P450 and P450-specific chemical inhibitors. Among the 13 cDNA-expressed P450 isoforms tested, CLB was mainly demethylated by CYP3A4, CYP2C19, and CYP2B6 and 4'-hydroxylated by CYP2C19 and CYP2C18. CYP2C19 and CYP2C18 catalyzed the 4'-hydroxylation of NCLB. The kinetics of the major biotransformations were studied: CYP3A4, CYP2C19, and CYP2B6 mediated the formation of NCLB with Km = 29.0, 31.9, and 289 microM, Vmax = 6.20, 1.15, and 5.70 nmol/min/nmol P450, and intrinsic clearance (CLint) = 214, 36.1, and 19.7 microl/min/nmol P450, respectively. NCLB was hydroxylated to 4'-hydroxydesmethylclobazam by CYP2C19 with Km = 5.74 microM, Vmax = 0.219 nmol/min/nmol P450, and CLint = 38.2 microl/min/nmol P450 (Hill coefficient = 1.54). These findings were supported by chemical inhibition studies in human liver microsomes. Indeed, ketoconazole (1 microM) inhibited the demethylation of CLB by 70% and omeprazole (10 microM) by 19%; omeprazole inhibited the hydroxylation of NCLB by 26%. Twenty-two epileptic patients treated with CLB were genotyped for CYP2C19. The NCLB/CLB plasma metabolic ratio was significantly higher in the subjects carrying one CYP2C19*2 mutated allele than in those carrying the wild-type genotype. CYP3A4 and CYP2C19 are the main P450s involved in clobazam metabolism. Interactions with other drugs metabolized by these P450s can occur; moreover, the CYP2C19 genetic polymorphism could be responsible for interindividual variations of plasma concentrations of N-desmethylclobazam and thus for occurrence of adverse events.[1]


  1. In vitro characterization of clobazam metabolism by recombinant cytochrome P450 enzymes: importance of CYP2C19. Giraud, C., Tran, A., Rey, E., Vincent, J., Tréluyer, J.M., Pons, G. Drug Metab. Dispos. (2004) [Pubmed]
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