The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Liposome-encapsulated CpG oligodeoxynucleotides as a potent adjuvant for inducing type 1 innate immunity.

Unmethylated cytosine-phosphorothioate-guanine oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG-ODNs) exhibit potent immunostimulating activity by binding with Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) expressed on antigen-presenting cells. Here, we show that CpG-ODN encapsulated in cationic liposomes (CpG-liposomes) improves its incorporation into CD11c(+) dendritic cells (DCs) and induces enhanced serum interleukin (IL)-12 levels compared with unmodified CpG-ODN. CpG-liposome potently activated natural killer (NK) cells (84.3%) and NKT cells (48.3%) to produce interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), whereas the same dose of unmodified CpG-ODN induced only low numbers of IFN-gamma- producing NK cells (12.7%) and NKT cells (1.6%) to produce IFN-gamma. In contrast with the NKT cell agonist alpha-galactosylceramide, which induces both IFN-gamma and IL-4 production by NKT cells, CpG-liposome only induced IFN-gamma production by NKT cells. Such potent adjuvant activities of CpG-liposome were absent in TLR9-deficient mice, indicating that CpG-liposome was as effective as CpG-ODN in stimulating type 1 innate immunity through TLR9. In addition to TLR9, at least two other factors, IL-12 production by DCs and direct contact between DCs and NK or NKT cells, were essential for inducing type 1 innate immunity by CpG-liposome. Furthermore, ligation of TLR9 by CpG-liposome coencapsulated with ovalbumin ( OVA) caused the induction of OVA-specific CTLs, which exhibited potent cytotoxicity against OVA-expressing tumor cells. These results indicate that CpG-liposome alone or combined with tumor antigen protein provides a promising approach for the prevention or therapy of tumors.[1]


  1. Liposome-encapsulated CpG oligodeoxynucleotides as a potent adjuvant for inducing type 1 innate immunity. Suzuki, Y., Wakita, D., Chamoto, K., Narita, Y., Tsuji, T., Takeshima, T., Gyobu, H., Kawarada, Y., Kondo, S., Akira, S., Katoh, H., Ikeda, H., Nishimura, T. Cancer Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities