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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Role of mitochondrial cardiolipin peroxidation in apoptotic photokilling of 5-aminolevulinate-treated tumor cells.

In 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA)-based photodynamic therapy (PDT), ALA taken up by tumor cells is metabolized to protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), which sensitizes photodamage leading to apoptotic or necrotic cell death. Since lipophilic PpIX originates in mitochondria, we postulated that photoperoxidation of highly unsaturated cardiolipin (CL), which anchors cytochrome c (cyt c) to the inner membrane, is an early proapoptotic event. As initial evidence, PpIX-sensitized photooxidation of liposomal CL to hydroperoxide (CLOOH) species precluded cyt c binding, but this could be reinstated by GSH/selenoperoxidase (GPX4) treatment. Further support derived from site-specific effects observed using (i) a mitochondrial GPX4-overexpressing clone (7G4) of COH-BR1 tumor cells, and (ii) an ALA treatment protocol in which most cellular PpIX is either inside (Pr-1) or outside (Pr-2) mitochondria. Sensitized cells were exposed to a lethal light dose, and then analyzed for death mechanism and lipid hydroperoxide (LOOH) levels. Irradiated Pr-1 vector control (VC) cells died apoptotically following cyt c release and caspase-3 activation, whereas 7G4 cells were highly resistant. Irradiated Pr-2 VC and 7G4 cells showed negligible cyt c release or caspase-3 activation, and both types died via necrosis. CLOOH (detected long before cyt c release) accumulated approximately 70% slower in Pr-1 7G4 cells than in Pr-1 VC, and this slowdown exceeded that of all other LOOHs. These and related findings support the hypothesis that CL is a key upstream target in mitochondria-dependent ALA-PDT-induced apoptosis.[1]


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