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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha as a costimulatory signal for mast cell-mediated immediate hypersensitivity reactions.

Regulation of the immune response requires the cooperation of multiple signals in the activation of effector cells. For example, T cells require signals emanating from both the TCR for antigen (upon recognition of MHC/antigenic peptide) and receptors for costimulatory molecules (e.g., CD80 and CD60) for full activation. Here we show that IgE-mediated reactions in the conjunctiva also require multiple signals. Immediate hypersensitivity reactions in the conjunctiva were inhibited in mice deficient in macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha (MIP-1alpha) despite normal numbers of tissue mast cells and no decrease in the levels of allergen-specific IgE. Treatment of sensitized animals with neutralizing antibodies with specificity for MIP-1alpha also inhibited hypersensitivity in the conjunctiva. In both cases (MIP-1alpha deficiency and antibody treatment), the degranulation of mast cells in situ was affected. In vitro sensitization assays showed that MIP-1alpha is indeed required for optimal mast cell degranulation, along with cross-linking of the high-affinity IgE receptor, FcepsilonRI. The data indicate that MIP-1alpha constitutes an important second signal for mast cell degranulation in the conjunctiva in vivo and consequently for acute-phase disease. Antagonizing the interaction of MIP-1alpha with its receptor CC chemokine receptor 1 (CCR1) or signal transduction from CCR1 may therefore prove to be effective as an antiinflammatory therapy on the ocular surface.[1]


  1. Macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha as a costimulatory signal for mast cell-mediated immediate hypersensitivity reactions. Miyazaki, D., Nakamura, T., Toda, M., Cheung-Chau, K.W., Richardson, R.M., Ono, S.J. J. Clin. Invest. (2005) [Pubmed]
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